The results demonstrated that Mndoped ZnO/Graphene nanocomposites

The results demonstrated that Mndoped ZnO/Graphene nanocomposites efficiently bleached out the MB, showing an impressive photocatalytic enhancement over Mn-doped ZnO and pure ZnO samples. The enhanced activity of composite photocatalysts can be attributed to large adsorption by the dyes, enhanced visible light absorption and efficient charge separation

and fast transfer processes. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Techna Group S.r.l. All rights reserved.”
“ObjectiveThis study examined the mechanisms by which H2S modulates coronary microvascular resistance and myocardial perfusion at rest and in response to cardiac ischemia. MethodsExperiments were conducted in isolated coronary arteries and in open-chest anesthetized dogs. ResultsWe found that the H2S substrate l-cysteine (1-10mM) did not alter coronary selleck compound tone of isolated arteries in vitro or coronary blood flow in vivo. In contrast, intracoronary (ic) H2S (0.1-3mM) increased coronary flow from 0.490.08 to 2.65 +/- 0.13mL/min/g (p smaller than 0.001). This increase in flow was unaffected by inhibition of K-v channels with 4-aminopyridine (p=0.127) but was attenuated (0.23 +/- 0.02-1.13 +/- 0.13mL/min/g) by the K-ATP channel antagonist glibenclamide (p smaller than Repotrectinib 0.001). Inhibition of NO synthesis (l-NAME) did not attenuate coronary responses to H2S. Immunohistochemistry revealed expression of CSE, an endogenous H2S enzyme, in myocardium. Inhibition

of CSE with -cyano-l-alanine (10M) had no effect on baseline coronary flow or responses to a 15-second coronary occlusion (p=0.82). ConclusionsThese findings demonstrate that exogenous H2S induces potent, endothelial-independent dilation of the coronary microcirculation predominantly through the activation of K-ATP channels, however, our data do not support a functional role for endogenous H2S in the regulation of coronary microvascular resistance.”
“BACKGROUND: Individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) experience some of the highest unemployment rates among all groups of chronic illnesses. Pain has been found to be a common reason

for sick leave or early retirement in healthy populations or other groups with find more chronic illness; however, there is little awareness regarding the effect of pain on the work status of individuals with MS. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the extent to which individuals with pain differ in employment status compared with those without pain among MS patients. METHODS: An extensive systematic review of the scientific literature was performed within the framework of the Cochrane Collaboration to identify studies focusing on the effect of pain on employment in individuals with MS. The following databases were searched: PubMed, EMBASE, PsychInfo, Web of Science, MD Consult and Elsevier, and Science Direct. The methodological quality of studies was assessed using the McMaster Critical Review Form. RESULTS: Ten articles met the inclusion criteria and were included in the systematic review.

N-isopropylacrylamide, 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate or 2-a

N-isopropylacrylamide, 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate or 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid can be obtained over a wide range of degrees of polymerization up to 10,000 with low polydispersity AZD1480 (typically (M) over bar (w)/(M) over bar (n) < 1 2) to near quantitative conversions Well-defined block copolymers between

these monomers, based on several asymmetric macro-RAM agents, can be obtained, suggesting that the RAFT agents are stable throughout the polymerization process so that complex and well-defined architectures can be obtained. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.”
“As a model for photodynamic therapy, photosensitization with dodecyloxo-(methoxo)tetraphenylporphyrinatoantimony bromide was investigated in a phospholipid liposome (LP) constructed with 1,2-diparmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphocholine. The adsorption isotherms of the sensitizer into the LP showed Langmuir-type adsorption with binding constants in the order of 10(6) M-1. The sensitizer was bound to the LP by hydrophobic interactions with the dodecyloxo ligand and the core of the LP membrane. The photosensitized oxygenation reaction

of 9,10-dimethylanthracene GF120918 chemical structure (DMA) with the sensitizer in the LP occurred efficiently at 0.73 of the limiting quantum yield. Fluorescence quenching and kinetic analysis suggested that the reaction proceeded through photoinduced electron transfer from DMA to the excited singlet state of the sensitizer. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Graphene oxide was prepared from graphite using Hummer’s method. Pt nanoparticles with 1.8 rim in average size are successfully obtained via in-situ Pt nanoparticles deposition onto graphene oxide (GO) using a microwave method, finally resulting in Pt-graphene

(Pt-G). Water uptake of GO is increased with GO content in a Nafion/GO composite membrane due to the hydrophilic GO while that of Nafion/Pt-G composite membrane is much lower than that of Nafion/GO composite membrane. The MEAs fabricated with the Nafion/GO composite membrane show significant enhancement in cell performance: that is, 0.802 A, 1.27 A, 0.827 A at 0.6 V under 100% relative humidify (RH) for 0.5 wt%, 3.0 wt% and 4.5 wt% of GO content in the composite membrane, respectively, GSK1838705A chemical structure compared to 0.435 A for casting Nafion membrane. The Nafion/PL-G composite membrane, however, does not show sufficient enhancement under various RHs It is attributed to poor water retention ability of hydrophobic graphene and electron loss due to the formation of electrical network by too much Pt within the membrane. Constant open circuit voltage (OCV) down to low RH indicates that GO and graphene could be prospective as filler in low humidifying polymer electrolyte fuel cell. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

All of them had uneventful postoperative recovery period and were

All of them had uneventful postoperative recovery period and were still pain-free at the latest follow up after 26.6 months (24/30). Median time-to-return to competitive sports level was 10 weeks (8/13). None of the patients developed pubic instability due to symphyseal spur resection. The results of considerable postoperative improvement in our patients highlight the significance of posterior symphyseal spurs as a diagnostic possibility in athletes with chronic learn more groin pain.”
“Purpose of review\n\nThe present review is intended to provide a critical

overview of recent investigations of obesity among older persons with emphasis upon associated functional limitations, potential for intervention, and a future research agenda.\n\nRecent findings\n\nObesity is growing in prevalence among older persons. The association between obesity and functional decline is well documented. Recent findings suggest possible contributions of obesity-associated inflammatory milieu, sarcopenia, and impairment of muscle function/strength to adverse functional outcomes. A growing body of literature supports consideration of moderate weight

reduction to secure improved metabolic and functional parameters for obese older persons.\n\nSummary\n\nObesity is associated with an unfortunate burden of chronic disease, functional limitation, and poor life quality. In view of the growing numbers of afflicted older individuals, there must be research priority to discern how obesity

impacts function so that see more appropriate prevention and treatment strategies may be adopted.”
“A novel picornavirus genome was sequenced, showing 42.6%, 35.2%, and 44.6% of deduced amino acid identities corresponding to the P1, P2, and P3 regions, respectively, of the Aichi virus. Divergent strains of this new virus, which we named salivirus, were detected in 18 stool samples from Nigeria, Tunisia, Nepal, and the United States. A statistical association was seen between virus shedding and unexplained cases of gastroenteritis in Nepal (P = 0.0056). Viruses with approximately 90% nucleotide similarity, named klassevirus, were also recently reported Napabucasin inhibitor in three cases of unexplained diarrhea from the United States and Australia and in sewage from Spain, reflecting a global distribution and supporting a pathogenic role for this new group of picornaviruses.”
“High-throughput sequencing technology enables population-level surveys of human genomic variation. Here, we examine the joint allele frequency distributions across continental human populations and present an approach for combining complementary aspects of whole-genome, low-coverage data and targeted high-coverage data.

The research done in the last decade brought strong evidences of

The research done in the last decade brought strong evidences of effectiveness for paroxetine, venlafaxine, sertraline, fluvoxamine, citalopram, fluoxetine, clonazepam, and the relatively novel agent escitalopram. There are evidences indicating that the other new compounds inositol, duloxetine, mirtazapine, milnacipran, and nefazodone have antipanic properties and may be effective compounds in the treatment of PD. The effectiveness of reboxetine

and anticonvulsants is a subject of controversy. In addition to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants, monoamine selleck screening library oxidase inhibitors, benzodiazepines and atypical antipsychotics may be valid alternatives in the treatment of PD. Recent data indicate that augmentation MI-503 supplier strategies with aripiprazole, olanzapine, pindolol or clonazepam may be effective. D-cycloserine is a promising agent in the augmentation of cognitive behavioral therapy.”
“Ewing’s sarcoma family of tumors (EFT) is characterized by the presence of chromosomal translocations leading to the expression of oncogenic transcription factors such as, in the majority of cases, EWS/FLI1. Because of its key role in Ewing’s sarcoma development and maintenance, EWS/FLI1 represents an attractive therapeutic target. Here, we characterize PHLDA1 as a novel direct target gene

whose expression is repressed by EWS/FLI1. Using this gene and additional specific well-characterized target genes such find protocol as NROB1, NKX2.2 and CAV1, all activated by EWS/FLI1, as a read-out system, we screened a small-molecule compound library enriched for FDA-approved drugs that modulated the expression of EWS/FLI1 target genes. Among a hit-list of nine well-known drugs such as camptothecin, fenretinide, etoposide and doxorubicin, we also identified the kinase inhibitor midostaurin (PKC412). Subsequent experiments demonstrated that midostaurin is able to induce apoptosis in a panel of six Ewing’s sarcoma cell lines in vitro and can significantly suppress xenograft tumor growth in vivo. These results suggest that midostaurin might be a novel drug that is active against Ewing’s cells, which might act by modulating the expression

of EWS/FLI1 target genes.”
“Biological soft tissues exhibit a strongly nonlinear viscoelastic behaviour. Among parenchymous tissues, kidney and liver remain less studied than brain, and a first goal of this study is to report additional material properties of kidney and liver tissues in oscillatory shear and constant shear rate tests. Results show that the liver tissue is more compliant but more strain hardening than kidney. A wealth of multi-parameter mathematical models has been proposed for describing the mechanical behaviour of soft tissues. A second purpose of this work is to develop a new constitutive law capable of predicting our experimental data in the both linear and nonlinear viscoelastic regime with as few parameters as possible.

Despite extensive damage to cochlear hair cells, vestibular hair

Despite extensive damage to cochlear hair cells, vestibular hair cells appeared remarkably normal in all strains. Although both Sod1(-/-) and Cdh23(ahl/ahl) genotypes had strong effects on hearing

loss, the ARO 002 Cdh23(ahl/ahl) genotype was primarily responsible for the increase in hair cell loss, suggesting that the two mutations have different underlying mechanisms of pathology. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose. It was the aim of this study to investigate the possible enhancement of the absorption of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) in the nasal cavity, in the presence of a polymeric absorption enhancer, N-trimethyl chitosan chloride (TMC) and a patented fatty acid-based delivery system, Pheroid. Methods. Two types of Pheroid formulations, Pheroid vesicles and Pheroid microsponges were characterized and evaluated with regard to particle size and morphology. In vivo bioavailability studies in rats were performed and the nasal bioavailability of Pheroid vesicles and Pheroid microsponges were compared relative to subcutaneous administration. The results were also compared with different

N-trimethyl chitosan chloride (TMC) formulations, TMC H-L and TMC H-H, well studied absorption enhancers. Results. Pheroid vesicles and Pheroid microsponges showed a size distribution of approximately 2-3 mu m and 3-4 mu m for Pheroid vesicles and Pheroid microsponges respectively. Using specific RIA, the relative bioavailability of rhGH after comparison with subcutaneous injection was determined to be 38.9, 128.5, 39.9, 136.3, and 8.3 % for Pheroid microsponges, GSK2118436 nmr Pheroid vesicles, TMC H-H, TMC H-L and control group (intranasal rhGH alone), respectively. All the enhancers showed significant absorption enhancement (P < 0.05) with the highest effect observed with TMC H-L. Conclusion. All the enhancers may have promising potential as safe and effective nasal absorption enhancers of rhGH.\n\nThe Pheroid delivery system is a novel patented system consisting of a unique submicron emulsion type formulation. The system, which consist mainly of essential fatty acids can

entrap and transport pharmacological active compounds. SNS-032 supplier In this study it is shown that two types of Pheroid formulations, Pheroid vesicles and Pheroid microsponges, have the ability to entrap recombinant human growth hormone and improve the nasal absorption and thus bioavailability of rhGH. Intranasal administration of rhGH entrapped in Pheroid technology is an attractive alternative to subcutaneous of intravenous administration.”
“OBJECTIVE: To estimate whether metformin use by ovarian cancer patients with type II diabetes was associated with improved survival.\n\nMETHODS: We reviewed the effect of diabetes and diabetes medications on ovarian cancer treatment and outcomes in a single-institution retrospective cohort. Inclusion criteria were International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage I-IV epithelial ovarian, fallopian, or peritoneal cancer.

Associated symptoms of nausea, photophobia and phonophobia, a

\n\nAssociated symptoms of nausea, photophobia and phonophobia, and functional disability were reduced within two hours, and similar numbers of participants experienced adverse events, which were mostly mild and transient.\n\nThere were insufficient data to evaluate other doses of oral diclofenac, or to compare different formulations or different dosing regimens; only one study compared oral diclofenac with an active comparator (oral sumatriptan 100 mg).\n\nAuthors’ conclusions\n\nOral diclofenac potassium 50 mg is an effective

treatment for acute migraine, providing relief from pain and associated symptoms, although only a minority of patients experience pain-free responses. Adverse events are mostly mild and transient and occur at the same rate as with placebo.”
“Objective To determine the extent find more to which computerised decision support can improve concordance of multidisciplinary teams with therapeutic decisions recommended by guidelines.\n\nDesign Multicentre cluster randomised trial.\n\nParticipants Multidisciplinary cardiac rehabilitation teams in Dutch centres and their cardiac rehabilitation

patients.\n\nInterventions Teams received an electronic patient record system with or without additional guideline based decision support.\n\nMain outcome measures Concordance with guideline recommendations assessed for SRT2104 concentration two standard rehabilitation treatments-exercise

and education therapy-and for two new but evidence based rehabilitation treatments-relaxation and lifestyle change therapy; generalised estimating equations were used to account for intra-cluster correlation and were adjusted for patient’s age, sex, and indication for cardiac rehabilitation and for type and volume of centre.\n\nResults Data from 21 centres, see more including 2787 patients, were analysed. Computerised decision support increased concordance with guideline recommended therapeutic decisions for exercise therapy by 7.9% (control 84.7%; adjusted difference 3.5%, 95% confidence 0.1% to 5.2%), for education therapy by 25.7% (control 63.9%; adjusted difference 23.7%, 15.5% to 29.4%), and for relaxation therapy by 25.5% (control 34.1%; adjusted difference 41.6%, 25.2% to 51.3%). The concordance for lifestyle change therapy increased by 3.2% ( control 54.1%; adjusted difference 7.1%, -2.9% to 18.3%). Computerised decision support reduced cases of both overtreatment and undertreatment.\n\nConclusions In a multidisciplinary team motivated to adopt a computerised decision support aid that assists in formulating guideline based care plans, computerised decision support can be effective in improving the team’s concordance with guidelines. Therefore, computerised decision support may also be considered to improve implementation of guidelines in such settings.

The cost-effectiveness of this additional strategy will depend on

The cost-effectiveness of this additional strategy will depend on its capacity to recruit nonscreened women and in particular those at increased risk of cervical (pre) cancer, the possible switch of previous responders to self-sampling, the accuracy and cost of the HPV assay-self-sampler combination, and the compliance of women being self-sample HPV-positive with further follow-up. Validated PCR-based assays, detecting

high-risk HPV DNA, are as accurate on self-samples as on clinician-collected samples. On the contrary, HPV assays, based on signal amplification, are less sensitive and specific on self-samples. The introduction of self-sampling strategies should be carefully ASP2215 purchase prepared and evaluated in pilot studies integrated in well-organized settings before general

rollout. Opt-in procedures involving a request for a self-sampler may reduce response rates. Therefore, an affordable device that can be included with the invitation to all nonattendees may yield a stronger effect on participation. (C) 2015 AACR.”
“The development of molecular probes that allow in vivo imaging of neural signaling processes with high temporal and spatial resolution remains challenging. Here we applied directed evolution techniques to create magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents sensitive to the neurotransmitter dopamine. The sensors were derived from the heme BMS-754807 molecular weight domain of the bacterial cytochrome P450-BM3 (BM3h). Ligand binding to a site near BM3h’s paramagnetic heme iron led to a drop in MRI signal enhancement and a shift in optical absorbance. Using an absorbance-based screen, we evolved the specificity of BM3h away from its natural ligand and toward dopamine, producing sensors with dissociation constants for dopamine of 3.3-8.9 mu M. These molecules Quisinostat price were used to image depolarization-triggered neurotransmitter release from PC12 cells and in the brains of live animals. Our results demonstrate

the feasibility of molecular-level functional MRI using neural activity-dependent sensors, and our protein engineering approach can be generalized to create probes for other targets.”
“Class B1 (secretin family) G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) modulate a wide range of physiological functions, including glucose homeostasis, feeding behavior, fat deposition, bone remodeling, and vascular contractility. Endogenous peptide ligands for these GPCRs are of intermediate length (27-44 aa) and include receptor affinity (C-terminal) as well as receptor activation (N-terminal) domains. We have developed a technology in which a peptide ligand tethered to the cell membrane selectively modulates corresponding class B1 GPCR-mediated signaling.

These findings are of additional interest because C jejuni

These findings are of additional interest because C. jejuni JNK-IN-8 datasheet utilizes the flagellum to export virulence proteins.”
“Variation in cellular gene expression levels has been shown to be inherited. Expression is controlled at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Internal ribosome entry sites (IRES) are used

by viruses to bypass inhibition of cap-dependent translation, and by eukaryotic cells to control translation under conditions when protein synthesis is inhibited. We aimed at identifying genomic determinants of variability in IRES-mediated translation of viral [Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV)] and cellular IRES [X-linked inhibitor-of-apoptosis (XIAP) and c-myc]. Bicistronic lentiviral constructs expressing two fluorescent reporters were used to transduce laboratory and B lymphoblastoid cell lines [15 CEPH pedigrees (n 205) and 50 unrelated individuals]. IRES efficiency varied according to cell type and selleck chemicals among individuals. Control of IRES activity has a significant genetic component (h(2) of 0.47 and 0.36 for EMCV and XIAP, respectively). Quantitative linkage analysis identified a suggestive locus (LOD 2.35) on chromosome 18q21.2, and genome-wide association analysis revealed of a cluster of SNPs on chromosome 3, intronic to the FHIT gene, marginally associated

(P 5.9E-7) with XIAP IRES function. This study illustrates the in vitro generation of intermediate phenotypes by using cell lines for the evaluation of genetic determinants of control of elements such as IRES.”
“Non-natural L-nucleoside analogues are increasingly used as therapeutic SBE-β-CD datasheet agents to treat cancer

and viral infections. To be active, L-nucleosides need to be phosphorylated to their respective triphosphate metabolites. This stepwise phosphorylation relies on human enzymes capable of processing L-nucleoside enantiomers. We used crystallographic analysis to reveal the molecular basis for the low enantioselectivity and the broad specificity of human 3-phosphoglycerate kinase (hPGK), an enzyme responsible for the last step of phosphorylation of many nucleotide derivatives. Based on structures of hPGK in the absence of nucleotides, and bound to L and D forms of MgADP and MgCDP, we show that a non-specific hydrophobic clamp to the nucleotide base, as well as a water-filled cavity behind it, allows high flexibility in the interaction between PGK and the bases. This, combined with the dispensability of hydrogen bonds to the sugar moiety, and ionic interactions with the phosphate groups, results in the positioning of different nucleotides so to expose their diphosphate group in a position competent for catalysis.

However, little is known about the effects of temperature and foo

However, little is known about the effects of temperature and food concentration on its growth and grazing. Here, using the heterotrophic dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina as prey, we determined the specific growth rate, cell volume, specific

production, and ingestion rate of C. spatiosum at different temperatures and prey concentrations. These growth and grazing parameters typically followed a hyperbolic response to prey concentration. By applying iterative curve-fitting to the data at each temperature, we found that, with increasing temperature, the maximum specific growth rate, maximum specific production, and maximum ingestion rate of C. spatiosum generally increased, while AZD4547 ic50 the maximum cell volume decreased. The gross growth efficiency of C. spatiosum generally decreased at saturated prey concentration from about 45 to 25% as the temperature increased from 12 to 24 degrees C. By fitting these data iteratively to multi-variable nonlinear models, we obtained predictive equations for the growth rate, cell volume, and ingestion rate with respect to

temperature and prey concentration.”
“PurposeThe Dixon techniques provide uniform water-fat separation but require multiple image sets, which extend the overall acquisition time. Here, AZD6094 order an alternative rapid single acquisition method, lipid elimination with an echo-shifting N/2-ghost acquisition (LEENA), was introduced. MethodsThe LEENA method utilized a fast imaging with steady-state free precession sequence to obtain a single k-space dataset in which successive k-space lines are acquired to allow the fat magnetization to precess 180 degrees.

The LEENA data were then unghosted using either image-domain (LEENA-S) or k-space domain (LEENA-G) parallel imaging techniques to reconstruct water-only and fat-only images. An off-resonance correction technique was incorporated to improve the uniformity of the water-fat separation. ResultsUniform water-fat separation was achieved for both the LEENA-S and LEENA-G methods for phantom and human BLZ945 Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor body and leg imaging applications at 1.5T and 3T. The resultant water and fat images were qualitatively similar to conventional 2-point Dixon and fat-suppressed images. ConclusionThe LEENA-S and LEENA-G methods provide uniform water and fat images from a single MRI acquisition. These straightforward methods can be adapted to 1.5T and 3T clinical MRI scanners and provide comparable fat/water separation with conventional 2-point Dixon and fat-suppression techniques. Magn Reson Med 73:711-717, 2015. (c) 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“Thermodynamics of ligand binding is influenced by the interplay between enthalpy and entropy contributions of the binding event. The impact of these binding free energy components, however, is not limited to the primary target only.

The goal of the Current study Was to utilize Weiner’s Attribution

The goal of the Current study Was to utilize Weiner’s Attribution-Helping model to explain how a patient’s perceived responsibility for contracting HIV might impact DCPs’ attitudes and behavioral responses

toward PLWHA. Existing research has demonstrated that DCPs’ level of HIV-related knowledge impacts then, treatment attitudes and behaviors toward PLWHA, but it remains unclear whether the effects of HIV-related knowledge may be masked by the personal attitudes (i.e., perceived patient responsibility for contracting HIV) that DCPs maintain. One hundred and eighteen dental students were recruited from a New England dental program. All participants Citarinostat read one of three brief patient vignettes in which the mode by which an individual contracted HIV was manipulated. Dental students then completed a survey assessing 1) perceptions of the patient’s responsibility for contracting HIV; 2) knowledge of HIV, and 3) treatment attitudes. Results indicated that both knowledge of HIV and attributions of patient responsibility for illness were predictive of negative attitudes toward treatment.”
“Background: Patients with severe asthma have increased granulocytes in their sputum compared with patients

with mild to moderate asthma.\n\nObjective: We hypothesized that inflammatory granulocytes in sputum may identify Prexasertib solubility dmso specific asthma severity phenotypes and are associated with different patterns of inflammatory proteins in sputum supernatants.\n\nMethods: Tariquidar solubility dmso This hypothesis was tested in 242 patients with asthma enrolled in the Severe Asthma Research Program who provided sputum samples for cell count, differential cell determinations, cell lysates for Western blot, and supernatant

analyses by inflammatory protein microarrays and ELISAs. ANOVA and multiple linear regression models tested mediator associations.\n\nResults: Stratified by sputum granulocytes, <2% or >= 2% eosinophils and <40% or >= 40% neutrophils, subjects with both increased eosinophils and neutrophils had the lowest lung function and increased symptoms and health care use. Subjects with elevated eosinophils with or without increased neutrophils had significantly increased fraction exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and serum eosinophils and greater frequency of daily beta-agonist use. Microarray data stratified by granulocytes revealed 25 to 28 inflammatory proteins increased >2-fold in sputa with >= 40% neutrophils. Microarray analyses stratified by severity of asthma identified 6 to 9 proteins increased >2-fold in sputa in subjects with severe asthma compared with nonsevere asthma.