Our result shows that the Nxnl1 gene, through the thioredoxin RdC

Our result shows that the Nxnl1 gene, through the thioredoxin RdCVFL, is part of an endogenous defense mechanism against photooxidative stress that is likely of great importance for human vision. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“beta-Crystallins are the major structural proteins in mammalian lens, and their stability is critical in maintaining the transparency and refraction index of the lens. Among the seven beta-crystallins,

beta A3-crystallin and beta B1-crystallin, an acidic and a basic beta-crystallin, respectively, can form heteromers in vivo. However, the physiological roles of the heteromer have not been fully elucidated. In this research, we studied whether the basic beta-crystallin selleck kinase inhibitor selleck facilitates the folding of acidic beta-crystallin. Equilibrium folding studies revealed that the beta A3-crystallin and beta B1-crystallin homomers and the beta A3/beta B1-crystallin heteromer all undergo similar

five-state folding pathways which include one dimeric and two monomeric intermediates. beta A3-Crystallin was found to be the most unstable among the three proteins, and the transition curve of beta A3/beta B1-crystallin was close to that of beta B1-crystallin. The dimeric intermediate may be a critical determinant in the aggregation process and thus is crucial to the lifelong stability of the beta-crystallins. A comparison of the Gibbs free energy of the equilibrium folding suggested that the formation of heteromer contributed to the stabilization of the dimer interface. On the other hand, beta A3-crystallin, the only protein whose refolding is challenged by serious aggregation, can be protected by beta B1-crystallin in a dose-dependent manner during the kinetic CUDC-907 co-refolding. However, the protection is not observed in the presence of the pre-existed well-folded beta B1-crystallin. These findings suggested that the formation of beta-crystallin heteromers not only stabilizes the unstable acidic beta-crystallin but also protects them against aggregation during refolding from the stress-denatured states.”
“With increasing protein concentrations,

therapeutic protein formulations are increasingly demonstrating significant deviations from ideal dilute solution behavior due to protein-protein interactions. These interactions lead to unique biophysical challenges in the administration of biopharmaceuticals including high apparent viscosity and viscoelasticity as well as challenges in maintaining the physical stability of proteins in solution. Here, we describe a straightforward analytical method to calculate the complex modulus and viscosity of high concentration protein solutions from measurements made using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). Further, this methodology was used to investigate the dependence of the storage and loss moduli (G’ and G ”, respectively) of a humanized monoclonal antibody solution on solution pH.

2%) contained pan-sensitive strains and eight (5 4%) harbored mul

2%) contained pan-sensitive strains and eight (5.4%) harbored multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis. IS6110 RFLP typing revealed 110 RFLP patterns with 57.9% of patients infected with the Beijing genotype. This percentage was significantly higher than that in a previous report from pulmonary tuberculosis patients. Fifteen of

18 TBM patients (83%) aged <15 years were infected with Beijing isolates (OR = 4.47, p = 0.018). There were 40 spoligotypes, with 118 patients (80.3%) being clustered. The biggest cluster, which consisted of 84 patients, was the Beijing spoligotype (57.1%). There were 16 novel spoligotypes from 16 patients compared to the Fourth International Spoligotyping Database, SpolDB4. Sixty-four percent of the patients were male, and the mean age of Quizartinib mw patients was 33.8 years. Beijing isolates from 2001 to 2005 were found in higher percentages than those from PARP inhibitor 1995 to 2000, but this difference was not significant (p = 0.28). (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Aim Oxidative/mtrosative stress has long been demonstrated in hemodialysis patients It is associated with numerous complications such as atherosclerosis and related cardio vascular disturbances However, the factors influencing

oxidative/nitrosative status have not been characterized extensively in these patients Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the alteration of oxidative/nitrosative stress parameters and total antioxidant status\n\nMethods Forty-one hemodialysis patients and 41 healthy subjects

AC220 solubility dmso were enrolled in the present study Serum myeloperoxidase, nitrotyrosine and total antioxidant capacity were determined\n\nResults Serum myeloperoxidase and nitrotyrosine were significantly higher in the haemodialysis patients compared to the healthy subjects (P<0 05) while total antioxidant capacity was lower (P<0 01)\n\nConclusion According to the results of this study, oxidative and nitrosative stress is increased in haemodialysis patients, therefore these alterations should be considered in the treatment of these patients”
“Objective: This study is aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of digital images for telecytology diagnosis and compares it with routine cytology diagnostic under the conditions of Georgia. Materials and Methods: Gynecological cytology cases (n – 420) were taken from the clinical laboratory. Cases were diagnosed routinely by one of four certified cytologists who provided cytology diagnoses. Digital images were obtained on all cases and were evaluated as computer images by a panel of cytologists. Results: There was 94% concordance in average between routine versus digital images diagnostic. Intracytologists concordance averaged 95.5%. Image sharpness and quality were rated “good” and “excellent” in 97% cases. With respect to image color, 96% of the images were rated as “excellent” or “good.

“This paper presents the development of a chemical sensor

“This paper presents the development of a chemical sensor employing electronic-grade carbon nanotubes (EG-CNTs) as the active sensing element for sodium

hypochlorite detection. The sensor, integrated in a PDMS-glass microfluidic chamber, was fabricated by bulk aligning of EG-CNTs between gold microelectrode pairs using dielectrophoretic technique. Upon exposure to sodium hypochlorite solution, the characteristics of the carbon nanotube chemical sensor were investigated at room temperature under constant current mode. The sensor exhibited responsivity, which fits a linear logarithmic dependence on concentration in the range of 1/32 to 8 ppm, a detection limit lower than 5 ppb, while saturating

at 16 ppm. The typical SNX-5422 in vitro response time of the sensor at room temperature is on the order of minutes and the recovery time is a few hours. In particular, the sensor showed an obvious sensitivity to the volume of detected solution. It was found that the activation power of the sensor was extremely low, i.e. in the range of nanowatts. These results indicate great potential of EG-CNT for advanced nanosensors with superior sensitivity, ultra-low power consumption, and less fabrication complexity.”
“Missense mutations in MLH1 have frequently been detected in patients with Lynch syndrome, but their genetic significance has not been extensively assessed. In this study, we attempt to evaluate the etiological role of eight MLH1 missense variants. CP-868596 Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor The variants were analyzed for their ability to affect MLH1 protein interaction with its partner PMS2 in vivo employing a yeast two-hybrid system. In addition, a SIFT (sorting intolerant from tolerant) algorithm was adopted to predict the effects of learn more amino acid substitutions. Finally, scanning of mutations in a normal Chinese population and assay of the clinical characteristics have all been taken into account. Our results

demonstrated that the MLH1 variants D485E and L653R cause functional alterations of the human MutL alpha complex significantly. The R265C, D304V, A586P, and R755S variants affect partial interaction. The remaining two variants, N38D and L559R, could be nonfunctional polymorphisms or might affect the mismatch repair system through other mechanisms.”
“Hemodialysis (HD) is often used as an example of the most expensive chronic medical intervention that society will pay for on an ongoing basis. More intensive forms of HD have been associated with improved clinical outcomes, but concerns have been raised regarding the possibility of increased costs. We review recent Canadian studies examining the costs and cost utility of intensive HD, with a focus on comparisons with conventional in-center hemodialysis (IHD).

The low bias in summer maximum GPP at the semi-arid site could be

The low bias in summer maximum GPP at the semi-arid site could be due to seasonal response of V-cmax to temperature and precipitation while overestimated spring values at the mesic site could be due to response of V-cmax to temperature and day length.”
“PURPOSE: To analyze the relationship of strength, muscular balance, and atrophy with pain and function in patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis. STUDY DESIGN: Transversal, descriptive, and observational. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Institutional review board approval was obtained for this study. Twenty

six patients ages 50 years and older, with degenerative spondylolisthesis at L4-L5. Measurements included Pain Visual Analogue Scale scores (VAS), Oswestry Disability Liproxstatin-1 mw Index scores (ODI), and isokinetic trunk testing; assessment of multifidus atrophy and spinal stenosis was performed by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). STATISTICS: Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 17.0 software for Windows. Pearson’s correlation was used to ascertain the Selleckchem HKI 272 correlation between variables. ANOVA with analysis of covariance was used to determine the correlation between the remainder variables. Significance was set at p smaller than 0.05. RESULTS: Of the 26 patients studied, with an average age of 60.23 +/- 7.6 years, 20 had grade I spondylolisthesis

and 6 were grade II. Correlation between the ODI scores and spondylolisthesis grading was significant (r = 0.576, p =

0.005); correlation between agonist/antagonist ratio in the isokinetic test (predominant extensor muscles over flexors) with the ODI scores was Rabusertib manufacturer also significant (r = 0.446, p = 0.02), regardless of spinal stenosis. No correlation was found between functionality and pain with strength or multifidus atrophy. CONCLUSION: Muscle trunk imbalance with predominance of extensor over flexor muscles is associated with functional disability. Rehabilitation programs should be designed to improve muscle balance rather than muscle strength alone.”
“In eukaryotic cells, regulated vesicular trafficking is critical for directing protein transport and for recycling and degradation of membrane lipids and proteins. Through carefully regulated transport vesicles, the endomembrane system performs a large and important array of dynamic cellular functions while maintaining the integrity of the cellular membrane system. Genetic studies in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have identified approximately 50 vacuolar protein sorting (VPS) genes involved in vesicle trafficking, and most of these genes are also characterized in mammals. The VPS proteins form distinct functional complexes, which include complexes known as ESCRT, retromer, CORVET, HOPS, CARP, and PI3K-III. Little is known about the orthologs of VPS proteins in insects.

“The hybrid capture II (HCII) assay is widely used in the

“The hybrid capture II (HCII) assay is widely used in the detection of human

papillomavirus virus (HPV). However, due to the limited number of HPV genotypes, it does not permit a comprehensive typing of viruses and “grey zone” (borderline negative or positive results) are often difficult to interpret. As such, polymerase S3I-201 inhibitor chain reaction (PCR) should be used in parallel with HCII assays, and consensus PCR detection is capable of covering a wider detection range than with the HCII method. We examined the relationship between HCII relative light unit/cutoff (RLU/CO) ratios and PCR amplification results. This was done using previously described primer sets (MY/GP) as well as with our primers for HPV E1, L1 and E6 gene amplification, and performed on samples exhibiting different

cytological findings. Together, 243 samples were divided into three groups having RLU/CO ratios of < 0.4 (n = 21), 0.4-4 (n = 64) and 4 (n = 158), respectively. All samples were subjected to PCR amplification using MY/GP and the newly designed E1, L1 and E6 primers. Results were verified by direct sequencing. PCR amplification sensitivities were higher when using the El primers than for the MY/GP, E6 or L1 primers. The El assay can be used for HPV detection with a sensitivity of 10(2) copies mu l(-1). Samples with RLU/CO ratios exceeding 4, and grey zone samples of 0.4-4, were amplified using E1 primers in 79.74% and 26.56% of the total cases, respectively. Cytological data of grey zone samples www.selleckchem.com/products/MS-275.html were primarily found to be normal (77%) whereas those Emricasan concentration with RLU/CO ratios > 4 were found in any of the cytological data categories. We concluded that HPV screening by HCII for grey zone samples should be analyzed together with cytological data, as well as with a PCR screening tool that incorporates the E1 primers.”
“Crystallization-induced vertical stratified structures were constructed based on double-crystalline poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)/poly(ethylene glycol)s (PEG) systems at room temperature, in which the P3HT crystallinity and the mechanism were investigated.

Vertical stratified microstructures with highly crystalline P3HT network on the surface were formed when depositing from marginal solvents, while lateral phase-separated structures or low P3HT crystallinity were observed for good solvents. The morphological differences came from the solvent effect. In marginal solvents, p-xylene and dichloromethane, P3HT large-scale microcrystallites were generated in solution, which ensured the priority of P3HT crystalline sequence, and phase separation began in the liquid states. When the PEG matrix began to crystallize, great energy from which the second phase separation was induced drove P3HT crystallites to the surface, resulting in the formation of vertical stratified microstructures with highly crystalline P3HT network on the surface.

The resulting precipitates were further purified by dialysis and

The resulting precipitates were further purified by dialysis and protein depletion by the Sevage method. The phenol-sulfuric method was used to determine the content of the PSs. The composition of PSs was determined by the Sephadex-G200 column chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography methods. The thymus index and macrophage phagocytic function methods in mice were used to evaluate the immune regulatory activity of JFP-PSs. The JFP-PSs content in jackfruit was about 21% (w/w) and the yield of crude PSs was 3.91%. The single molecular mass weight PS was the main constituent of JFP-PSs. The major monosaccharide residues were

rhamnose, glucose, galactose, and arabinose. The JFP-PSs enhanced the thymus weight index and the phagocytic rate after 30 days of subchronic p.o. administration to mice at Stattic chemical structure 4.5 mg/kg. The JFP contains single selleck chemicals molecular PS and JFP-PS has immune-stimulating activities in mice. These data suggest that at least some of the traditional uses of JFP can be ascribed to its immunomodulatory

“The World Health Organization (WHO) has recently published a new research agenda for radiofrequency fields. The document lists high priority and other research needs for health effects research, subdivided into epidemiology, human studies, animal studies, cellular studies and mechanisms, and for social science research. Bioelectromagnetics 32:417-421, 2011. (C) 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.”
“alpha ”-Fe16N2 nanopowder was sintered at high-pressure and low temperature Linsitinib inhibitor in order to explore its feasibility as a bulk magnet. TEM observation confirmed that the nanopowder was densely consolidated by sintering at a pressure of 1.2GPa and temperatures around 200 degrees C. Increasing the sintering temperature enhanced the densification, leading to a suppression

of oxidization. However, XRD analysis revealed that sintering at 222 degrees C caused the decomposition alpha ” – bigger than alpha-Fe + epsilon-Fe3N, which reduced the saturated magnetization (M-s) and coercivity (H-c). Consequently, sintering at 190 degrees C produced a dense magnet that retained the M-s of the raw powder due to the avoidances of oxidization and decomposition. On the other hand, it was found that H-c degrades after sintering, which is believed to be due to magnetic interaction between the particles. (C) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.”
“Background: Previous research has shown that good footwear characteristics may reduce foot pain and foot-related disability in people with gout. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of good and poor footwear characteristics on plantar pressure and spatiotemporal parameters of gait in people with gout. Methods: Thirty-six people with gout participated in a cross-sectional repeated measures study.

In this work, we evaluated the effect of different compounds affe

In this work, we evaluated the effect of different compounds affecting medium water relations on maturation of avocado somatic embryos. Culture media were characterized with respect to gel strength, water potential and osmotic potential. Improved

production of mature somatic embryos was achieved with gelling agent concentrations higher than those considered standard. The osmotic Vadimezan chemical structure agents such as sorbitol and PEG did not have positive effects on embryo maturation. The number of w-o mature somatic embryos per culture was positively correlated with medium gel strength. Gel strength was significantly affected by gelling agent type as well as by gelling agent and PEG concentration. Medium water potential was influenced by sorbitol concentration; incorporation of PEG to a culture medium did not affect medium water potential. The highest maturation results were achieved on a medium gelled with 10 gl(-1) agar. Moreover, these somatic embryos had improved germination rates. These results corroborate the role of water restriction as a key factor controlling maturation of somatic embryos. (C) 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.”
“Modification of oleic acid (C18:1) and linolenic acid (C18:3) contents in seeds is one of the major MK-2206 in vivo goals for quality breeding after removal

of erucic acid in oilseed rape (Brassica napus). The fatty acid desaturase genes FAD2 and FAD3 have been shown as the major genes for the control LY2835219 manufacturer of C18:1 and C18:3 contents. However, the genome structure and locus distributions of the two gene families in amphidiploid B. napus are still not completely understood to date. In the present study, all copies of FAD2 and FAD3 genes in the A- and C-genome of B. napus and its two diploid progenitor species, Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea, were identified through

bioinformatic analysis and extensive molecular cloning. Two FAD2 genes exist in B. rapa and B. oleracea, and four copies of FAD2 genes exist in B. napus. Three and six copies of FAD3 genes were identified in diploid species and amphidiploid species, respectively. The genetic control of high C18:1 and low C18:3 contents in a double haploid population was investigated through mapping of the quantitative trait loci (QTL) for the traits and the molecular cloning of the underlying genes. One major QTL of BnaA.FAD2.a located on A5 chromosome was responsible for the high C18:1 content. A deleted mutation in the BnaA.FAD2.a locus was uncovered, which represented a previously unidentified allele for the high oleic variation in B. napus species. Two major QTLs on A4 and C4 chromosomes were found to be responsible for the low C18:3 content in the DH population as well as in SW Hickory. Furthermore, several single base pair changes in BnaA.FAD3.b and BnaC.FAD3.b were identified to cause the phenotype of low C18:3 content. Based on the results of genetic mapping and identified sequences, allele-specific markers were developed for FAD2 and FAD3 genes.

Both c-Myc and PHB1 directly interact with Nrf2 but c-Myc lowers

Both c-Myc and PHB1 directly interact with Nrf2 but c-Myc lowers Nrf2 binding to ARE while PHB1 enhances it. Innovation: This U0126 ic50 is the first work that shows how activation of this circuit in cholestatic liver injury

inhibits GCL expression. Conclusions: LCA feeding and BDL activate c-Myc-miR27a/b-PHB1 circuit, with the consequence of inhibiting Nrf2 expression and ARE binding, resulting in decreased reduced glutathione synthesis and antioxidant capacity. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 259-274.”
“Purpose: To establish a first-order derivative ultraviolet spectrophotometric (FODUS) method with good reproducibility for the determination of levan, a D-fructofuranosyl polymer with a beta-(2-6) backbone and beta-(2-1) branching. Methods: Levan was isolated from fermentation broth by alcohol precipitation and ultrafiltration. Factors influencing the determination of the ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometric method was compared with a single-factor analysis. The UV spectra of levan reaction solutions in the absorbance range of 200 – 400 nm were obtained. An orthogonal experimental design was applied to optimize the sulfuric acid hydrolysis conditions in the spectrophotometric

determination. FODUS method was validated by analyzing its linearity, reproducibility, stability and recovery. Results: Factors influencing absorbance for the determination were confirmed and two regression GSK3326595 equations were established. UV absorbance at 320 nm Selleck PXD101 of sulfuric acid-hydrolyzed sample was stable for 5 h. The FODUS method developed had a good reproducibility (RSD = 2.1 %, n = 5), linearity (ranging from 1.6 mu g/mL to 12.8 mu g/mL), R-2 = 0.9996) and recovery (95.90 %, RSD = 1.7 %, n = 3). Conclusion: The developed FODUS method is convenient, efficient and robust for the determination of microbial levan.

The method provides a valuable approach for the determination of polysaccharides.”
“In a companion article to this study,1 the successful programming of a JAWSII dendritic cell (DC) line’s antigen uptake and processing was demonstrated based on pre-treatment of DCs with a specific cocktail’ of select chemokines. Chemokine pre-treatment modulated cytokine production before and after DC maturation [by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)]. After DC maturation, it induced an antigen uptake and processing capacity at levels 36% and 82% higher than in immature DCs, respectively. Such programming proffers a potential new approach to enhance vaccine efficiency. Unfortunately, simply enhancing antigen uptake does not guarantee the desired activation and proliferation of lymphocytes, e.g. CD4+ T cells.

Serial clinical data and plasma BNP measurements were obtained du

Serial clinical data and plasma BNP measurements were obtained during the first trimester, third

trimester, and after delivery (>6 weeks).\n\nResults Seventy-eight pregnant women were studied; 66 women with heart disease (age 31 +/- 5 years), and 12 healthy women (age 33 +/- 5 years). During pregnancy, the median peak BNP level was higher in women with heart disease compared with control subjects (median 79, interquartile range 51 to 152 pg/ml vs. median 35, interquartile range 21 to 43 pg/ml, p < 0.001). In women with heart disease, those with subaortic ventricular dysfunction had higher BNP levels (p = 0.03). A BNP >100 pg/ml was measured in all women with events during pregnancy (n = 8). Sixteen women had increased BNP levels during pregnancy but did not have clinical Ro-3306 datasheet events. None of the women with BNP <= 100 pg/ml had events. BNP <= 100 pg/ml had a negative predictive value of 100% for identifying events during pregnancy.\n\nConclusions CP-868596 clinical trial Many pregnant women with heart disease have increased BNP levels during pregnancy. Incorporating serial BNP levels in into clinical practice can be helpful, specifically in adjudicating

suspected adverse cardiac events during pregnancy. (J Am Coll Cardiol 2010;56:1247-53) (C) 2010 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation”
“Background\n\nUp to 1% of adults will have a leg ulcer at some time.\n\nThe majority of leg ulcers are venous in origin and are caused by high pressure in the veins due to blockage or weakness of the valves in the veins of the leg. Prevention and treatment of venous ulcers is aimed at reducing the pressure either by removing/repairing the veins, or by applying compression bandages/stockings to reduce the pressure in the veins. The majority of venous ulcers heal with compression bandages, however ulcers frequently recur.

Clinical guidelines therefore recommend that people continue to wear compression, usually in the form of hosiery (tights, stockings, socks) after their ulcer heals, to prevent recurrence.\n\nObjectives\n\nTo assess the effects of compression (socks, stockings, tights, bandages) in preventing the recurrence DAPT of venous ulcers. If compression does prevent ulceration compared with no compression, then to identify whether there is evidence to recommend particular levels of compression (high, medium or low, for example), types of compression, or brands of compression to prevent ulcer recurrence after healing.\n\nSearch methods\n\nFor this update we searched The Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (searched 1 March 2012); The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 2); Ovid MEDLINE (1950 to February Week 4 2012); Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, February 29, 2012); Ovid EMBASE (1980 to 2012 Week 08); and EBSCO CINAHL (1982 to 1 March 2012).

In addition, the antioxidant potential of glyceollins were measur

In addition, the antioxidant potential of glyceollins were measured by a fluorescent probe, 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFDA), and

dihydroethidium (DHE) in mouse hepatoma hepa1c1c7 cells in which they were insulted with H2O2 to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). Glyceollins showed a strong reducing power and inhibited lipid peroxidation, with significant scavenging activities of radicals including singlet oxygen, superoxide anion, ABTS, and DPPH. We also found that glyceollins significantly suppressed H2O2-induced ROS production in hepa1c1c7 cells. Therefore, glyceollins deserve selleck chemical further study as natural antioxidants and nutraceuticals.”
“Approximately 15-25% of men who undergo radical prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer will experience a PSA-defined biochemical recurrence (BCR) of their cancer-men with poorly differentiated cancer, non-organ-confined disease, and positive surgical margins are at the highest risk. Accumulating evidence indicates that postoperative radiation therapy to the prostate bed favorably influences the course

of disease in men with pathological features of poor prognosis. Three phase III randomized trials of adjuvant radiotherapy versus observation have reported improved freedom from BCR, and one study has reported KPT-8602 ic50 improved metastasis-free survival and overall survival. Similar evidence from randomized trials for salvage radiotherapy is lacking; however, several observational studies have reported durable responses to salvage radiotherapy and reduced cancer-specific mortality in a substantial proportion of high-risk patients, provided that

it is administered at the earliest evidence of BCR. The appeal of salvage radiotherapy is that a substantial proportion LBH589 of patients with non-organ-confined cancer or positive surgical margins are cured after radical prostatectomy alone, thereby limiting the adverse effects of postoperative radiotherapy-which include urinary and bowel dysfunction, sexual dysfunction and secondary pelvic malignancies-to only those whose cancer was not cured by surgery. In the absence of data from randomized trials demonstrating the superiority of adjuvant radiotherapy over a surveillance strategy (with planned salvage radiotherapy at the earliest evidence of BCR), we advocate shared decision making between physicians and patients, based on the relative advantages and disadvantages of each approach.”
“We investigated the early results of modular porous metal components used in 23 acetabular reconstructions associated with major bone loss.