The leaf water extracts from Kedah and Kelantan have similar asco

The leaf water extracts from Kedah and Kelantan have similar ascorbic acid contents which was roughly threefold more than the water extracts of the stems. The ascorbic acid content in the leaf water extracts (260 and 277 mg/100 g of fresh tissue) was higher than that in several commercial vegetables (0.95–218 mg ascorbic acid/100 g of fresh tissue) ( Isabelle et al., 2010). Thus, the shoots of B. racemosa are excellent sources of ascorbic acid. Generally, flavonoids could be detected in all the extracts, although the ethyl acetate extracts of the leaves and stems from both locations had the highest flavonoid

contents, implying the selleck presence of (mainly) semi-polar flavonoids. The flavonoid contents in the ethyl acetate extracts in this study (19.9–21.8 mg RE/g of freeze-dried tissue) were lower than that

GSK1210151A concentration in a previously reported ethanolic extract of B. racemosa leaves (38.6 mg RE/g of freeze-dried tissue) ( Nurul Mariam et al., 2008). This could be due to differences in the condition and location where the plant is grown, as well as the extraction solvent used. Nevertheless, the flavonoid content in this study was higher than those of several Chinese medicinal plants (0.50–158 mg RE/g of freeze-dried tissue) ( Liu et al., 2008), as well as Algerian medicinal plants (1.62–13.1 mg RE/g air-dried tissue) ( Djeridane et al., 2006). Carotenoids were detected mainly in the ethyl acetate extracts, which was in accordance with the less polar

characteristics of these compounds. Among the ethyl acetate extracts, Kelantan leaf had the highest carotenoid content, followed in descending order by Kedah leaf > Kelantan stem > Kedah stem. Green leafy vegetables are rich sources of carotenoids, such as lutein, zeaxanthin, α-carotene and β-carotene, which are either semi-polar or apolar (Khoo, Prasad, Kong, Morin Hydrate Jiang, & Ismail, 2011). Xanthophylls are semi-polar carotenoids which are commonly found at high levels in vegetables, and hence will be mainly found in the ethyl acetate extracts (Khoo et al., 2011). Several in vitro   antioxidant assays were selected in this study, based on the ability of antioxidants to act as reducing agents (FRAP) and as radical-scavengers (DPPH, ABTS, O2- and NO radical-scavenging assays). Antioxidants act via several mechanisms, including as hydrogen/electron donors, metal ions chelators and through increasing the activities of the antioxidant enzymes, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. Hence, the use of antioxidant assays that measure the different mechanisms of the antioxidant effect would provide a better insight into the true antioxidant potential of the extracts. Table 2 shows the ferric reducing capacities of the plant extracts. Generally, the water extracts showed high ferric reducing activities and the hexane extracts the least.

Among the major microorganisms known for their ability to produce

Among the major microorganisms known for their ability to produce enzymes Crizotinib that degrade the cell wall of plants, fungi comprise the most interesting group (Hegde, Kavitha, Varadaraj, & Muralikrishna, 2006). The genus Rhizopus is one of the most promising in this process because it has been shown that, besides the ability to increase the protein content of the raw materials of low nutritional value, these proteins possess functional activity and specific catalytic activity. Furthermore, the fungi of this genus are well indicated for not producing toxic substances ( Oliveira et al., 2010). The aim of this study was to determine the profile of

phenolic acids derived from solid state fermentation of rice bran with the fungus Rhizopus oryzae and evaluate the antioxidant capacity and inhibition of enzymes peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase by extracts containing these compounds. The fungus R. oryzae (CCT 1217), was obtained from the André Tosello Foundation (FAT), Campinas, Brazil. The cultures were maintained at 4 °C in slants of potato dextrose agar (PDA, Acumedia®). The spores were spread by adding 5 mL of an aqueous emulsion (Tween 80 at 0.2%v/v) and they were incubated for 7 days at 30 °C until a whole new sporulation of the fungus by adding 0.2 mL of the emulsion in Petri dishes containing potato dextrose agar. Spore suspension for fermentation was achieved by adding 10 mL of an aqueous emulsion of Tween 80 (0.2%)

to each plate. The release of spores was obtained by scraping Pictilisib research buy the Liothyronine Sodium plates with a Drigalski handle and the concentrated spores solution was estimated by enumeration in a Neubauer chamber (L. Opitik, Germany). The rice bran (rice variety BR-IRGA 417) used as substrate

in fermentation was provided by industries from Rio Grande do Sul, with their particles size standardised to particles smaller than 32 mesh, and packed in 100 g in tray bioreactors (12 × 8 × 4 cm3) arranged in 2 cm layers, covered with sterilized gauze and cotton to allow aeration and prevent external contamination. The reactors containing the substrate were added in a nutrient solution (2 g/L KH2PO4, 1 g/L MgSO4 and 8 g/L (NH4)2SO4 in 0.4 N HCl) sterilized by filtration in Millipore membrane of 0.45 μm (Oliveira et al., 2010). The spores solution of the fungus R. oryzae was added at an initial concentration of 4 × 106 spores/gbran. Distilled water was added to the medium in order to adjust the humidity to 50%. The bioreactors were placed in a fermentation chamber at 30 °C with controlled humidity. Upon expiry of the incubation time (0–120 h, with sampling every 24 h), the fermented biomass was stored at −18 °C. The biomass generated during the fermentation process was indirectly estimated by the glucosamine content (Aidoo, Henry, & Wood, 1981). The glucosamine content was estimated spectrophotometrically (Biospectro, Brazil) at 530 nm using a standard curve of glucosamine (Sigma, USA) in water (1–15 mg/mL).

2 × 42 cm), which was eluted with 0 1 M Tris–HCl, pH 8 0, at a fl

2 × 42 cm), which was eluted with 0.1 M Tris–HCl, pH 8.0, at a flow rate of 0.34 ml min−1. Each fraction collected was tested for tryptic activity.

The protein peaks with high specific trypsin activity were pooled and applied on a benzamidine-agarose column (1 ml of packed column), which was eluted see more first with Tris–HCl 0.1 M, pH 8.0. Then, it was eluted with 0.05 KCl–HCl M, pH 2.0, and collected in 40 μl of 1.5 M Tris–HCl buffer, pH 9.0. Both benzamidine-agarose steps were carried out at the same flow rate (0.5 ml min−1). Each fraction was tested for tryptic activity. The protein peak with the highest trypsin activity was pooled and, after dialysis against 0.01 M Tris–HCl buffer, pH 8.0, it was stored at −25 °C to be used in the characterisation experiments. All steps were analysed by SDS–PAGE. Thirty microlitres of 8 mM N-α-benzoyl-dl-arginine-p-nitroanilide (BApNA), prepared in dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO), was incubated in microtitre wells with the enzyme (30 μl) and 0.1 M Tris–HCl, pH 8.0 (140 μl). The release of p-nitroaniline was measured as an increase in absorbance at 405 nm in a microplate reader (BioRad Model X-Mark™, USA). Controls were performed without enzyme. One unit of enzyme activity is considered

as the amount of enzyme able to produce 1 μmol of p-nitroaniline per minute. Protein content was estimated Z-VAD-FMK price by measuring sample absorbance at 280 nm and 260 nm, using the following equation: [protein] mg/ml = 1.5 × A280nm − 0.75 × A260nm (Warburg & Christian, 1941). SDS–PAGE was carried out according to the method described by Laemmli (1970), using a 4% (w/v) stacking gel and a 12.5% (w/v) separating gel. Lyophilised samples from the affinity Protein tyrosine phosphatase chromatography pool (50 μg of protein) and a molecular mass standard were added to a solution containing 10 mM Tris–HCl (pH 8.0), 2.5% SDS, 10% glycerol,

5% β-mercaptoethanol and 0.002% bromophenol blue, heated at 100 °C for 3 min and applied onto the electrophoresis gel. The electrophoretic running was conducted at variable voltage and constant current conditions. After running, the gel was stained for protein in a solution containing 0.25% (w/v) Coomassie Brilliant Blue, 10% (v/v) acetic acid and 25% methanol, for 30 min. The background of the gel was destained by washing in a solution containing 10% (v/v) acetic acid and 25% methanol (v/v). The molecular weights of the protein bands were estimated using the 198–6.8 kDa molecular mass protein standards (Bio-Rad laboratories). The assay was carried out using BApNA as a substrate in the range of final concentration from 0.025 to 2 mM) and under the same conditions (pH 8.0 and 25 °C) as described above. The reaction (triplicates) was initiated by adding 30 μl of purified enzyme solution (21.3 μg of protein/ml). Reaction rates were fitted to Michaelis–Menten kinetics, using Origin 6.0 Professional. The influences of both temperature and pH on trypsin activity of the A.

, 2011) In this study we tested the following hypotheses: i) bas

, 2011). In this study we tested the following hypotheses: i) based on temporal trend monitoring studies the estimated human exposure to PFOS and PFOA is lower, and the indirect intake is relatively more important compared to previous estimations, ii) given that PFOA is the dominant PFCA in human serum, estimated

total intakes for other PFCA homologues (perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) and Dabrafenib price perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA)) are lower than PFOA, and contributions of direct versus indirect exposure vary widely by homologue, and iii) the PFOS isomer pattern in total PFOS intake can help to explain the isomer pattern observed in human serum. The direct and indirect intakes of PFAAs and precursors are estimated through four major exposure pathways (ingestion of dust, dietary and drinking water intake, and inhalation of air) using the latest monitoring selleck kinase inhibitor data that have become available since 2008 (including samples from 2007). The approach used here to estimate the indirect (precursor) contribution to PFOS and PFCA exposure has been previously described by Vestergren

et al. (2008) and uses Scenario-Based Risk Assessment (SceBRA) modelling (Trudel et al., 2008). The methodology defines typical low-exposure, intermediate-exposure, and high-exposure to chemicals of the general

adult population through multiple pathways. The 5th percentile, median, and 95th percentile of each input parameter are used to represent the low-, intermediate-, and high-exposure scenarios, respectively. The low-exposure scenario represents a “best case” scenario with respect to human exposure to PFAAs, whereas the high-exposure scenario represents a “worst case” scenario. Fig. 1 Histidine ammonia-lyase shows the concept of the estimation of precursor contribution to PFOS and PFCA exposure, and the PFAAs and precursors that are included in this study (see Table S1 for PFAA and precursor chemical structures). In this study, peer-reviewed data are included that were published after the study by Vestergren et al. (2008). This includes samples that were taken during and after 2007. There have been significant advances in analysis of PFAAs and their precursors in exposure media in recent years (e.g. increased instrument sensitivity and improved understanding of contamination issues) (Berger et al., 2011). Therefore, the use of recent data will not only allow for an assessment of the recent exposure situation but will also allow for a more accurate assessment. Certain PFAAs and precursors were phased out in North America and Europe in 2002, however, they are still produced in some continental Asian countries, especially China (Wang et al., 2014).

241077) and by the CNRS The authors wish to thank Corey White, R

241077) and by the CNRS. The authors wish to thank Corey White, Ronald Hübner, Scott Brown, Eric-Jan Wagenmakers and Thierry Hasbroucq for their helpful comments. We also thank Marcel Janssen for technical assistance with color calibration. Distributional data and Python codes of the models are available upon request. “
“Complex working memory (WM) span tasks such as reading and operation span have been shown to be important predictors of a number of higher-order and lower-order cognitive processes. In these tasks to-be-remembered items are interspersed with some form of distracting activity such as reading sentences or solving math problems. Based on these complex span tasks, WM has

been shown to predict performance on a number of higher-order cognitive tasks including reading comprehension (Daneman & Carpenter, 1980), vocabulary learning (Daneman & Green, 1986), and performance on the SATs (Turner & Engle, 1989). Likewise, WM span tasks have been shown to predict performance on a number of attention and inhibition tasks (Engle and Kane, 2004, McVay and Kane, 2012 and Unsworth and Spillers, 2010a), as well as predict performance on a number of secondary or long-term memory

tasks (Unsworth, 2010 and Unsworth et al., 2009). Furthermore, these tasks have been shown to predict important phenomena such as early onset Alzheimer’s (Rosen, Bergeson, Putnam, Harwell, & Sunderland, 2002), life-event stress (Klein & Boals, 2001), aspects of personality (Unsworth, Miller, Lakey, Young, Meeks & Campbell, 2009), susceptibility to choking under pressure (Beilock & Carr, GDC-0449 manufacturer 2005), and stereotype threat 3-oxoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) reductase (Schamader & Johns, 2003). It is clear from a number of studies that WM has substantial predictive power in terms of predicting performance on a number of measures. In particular, the relation between WM and fluid intelligence has received a considerable amount of attention. Fluid intelligence (gF), which is the ability to solve

novel reasoning problems, has been extensively researched and shown to correlate with a number of important skills such as comprehension, problem solving, and learning (Cattell, 1971), and has been found to be an important predictor of a number of real world behaviors including performance in educational settings (Deary, Strand, Smith, & Fernandes, 2007) as well as overall health and mortality (Gottfredson & Deary, 2004). Beginning with the work of Kyllonen and Christal (1990) research has suggested that there is a strong link between individual differences in WM and gF. In particular, this work suggests that at an individual task level measures of WM correlate with gF measures around .45 (Ackerman, Beier, & Boyle, 2005) and at the latent level WM and gF are correlated around .72 (Kane, Hambrick, & Conway, 2005). Thus, at a latent level WM and gF seem to share approximately half of their variance.

Moreover, the natural structural heterogeneity that develops afte

Moreover, the natural structural heterogeneity that develops after many decades of stand development,

through accumulation of the effects of both competitive and non-competitive mortality, can be achieved fairly rapidly, thus accelerating the restoration process (O’Hara et al., 2010). Large woody debris is an important habitat element that can be abundant in passively buy Doxorubicin managed stands, but is often depleted in managed stands (Harmon et al., 1986 and Grove and Meggs, 2003). The depletion reflects the relatively short rotation or cutting cycle lengths of managed stands, compared to the natural life spans of trees, such that significant amounts of large deadwood does not have time to develop. Additionally, dead trees may not be left as biological legacies (sensu Franklin et al., 2000) in harvested stands. Moreover, living but decadent trees in the process of decline, decay, and eventual mortality, are abundant in natural forests, but managed against in traditional commercial forestry (e.g., Fridman and Walheim, 2000 and Kruys find more et al., 2013). In fact, traditional thinning is often used to improve and standardize tree quality and form, such that

poor quality trees (e.g., those with cavities, large branches, or decay pockets) may be preferentially removed ( Graves et al., 2000). Given the importance of dead and dying trees in forest ecosystems as habitat for many other organisms (Harmon et al., 1986 and Jonsson et al., 2005), a restoration program might include active techniques, beyond time, to add these structural elements into managed stands. One such approach is the inclusion of dead and Baf-A1 mw dying trees in retention harvesting prescriptions. Conceptually, variable retention harvesting is meant to consider and include more than just large live trees,

but also other structural elements that are retained in the harvested stand as legacies, including standing and downed deadwood (Franklin et al., 1997 and Grove and Meggs, 2003). A restoration program might include actions such as deliberate killing of living trees, or injuring them to induce decline, with the goal of creating cavity trees and dead wood in its various forms in established stands (Laarmann et al., 2009, Vanha-Majamaa et al., 2007 and Gibbons et al., 2010). Alternatively, artificial cavities have been successfully created for some endangered species (Hooper and McAdie, 1996 and Lindenmayer et al., 2009). Leaving high stumps after harvest benefits saproxylic beetles by providing breeding habitat (e.g., Lindhe and Lindelöw, 2004). Restoring structural heterogeneity at multiple scales often is a component of habitat restoration for birds and other animals. Complex vegetation structures can be especially important for conservation of some top predators, but a diversity of structures may be needed to fulfill the habitat requirements of their prey.

g [8] and [9]) The most comprehensive study of indigenous South

g. [8] and [9]). The most comprehensive study of indigenous South American Y chromosomes thus far surveyed 1011 individuals and found that while most of them belonged to haplogroup Q as expected, 14 individuals from two nearby populations in Ecuador carried haplogroup C3*(xC3a-f) chromosomes (henceforth C3*), with this haplogroup reaching 26% frequency in the Kichwa sample and 7.5% in the Waorani [10]. The estimated TMRCA for the combined Ecuadorian C3* chromosomes was 5.0–6.2 Kya. The finding of this ABT-199 datasheet haplogroup in Ecuador was surprising because C3* is otherwise unreported from the

Americas (apart from one example in Alaska), but is widespread and common in East Asia. Three scenarios might explain the presence of C3* Smad pathway chromosomes

at a mean frequency of 17% in these two Ecuadorian populations [10], Fig. 1. First, they might represent recent admixture with East Asians during the last few generations. This possibility was considered unlikely because the Waorani discouraged contact with outsiders using extreme ferocity until peaceful links were established in 1958, and known male ancestors (fathers, grandfathers) of C3* carriers were born before this date. Second, C3* might have been another founding lineage entering the Americas 15–20 Kya, and have drifted down to undetected levels in all populations examined except the Ecuadorians. This was also considered unlikely because the populations of North and Central America have in general experience less drift and retained more diversity than those in South America [2], and so it would be surprising to lose C3* from North/Central Americans but not South Americans. Third, Benzatropine C3* could have been introduced into Ecuador from East Asia at some intermediate date by a direct route that bypassed North America. In support of this third scenario, archaeologists have identified similarities in pottery between the middle Jōmon culture of Kyushu (Japan) and the Valdivia culture of coastal Ecuador dating to 5.3–6.4 Kya; notably, like

the C3* chromosomes, such a ceramic complex in the Americas was unique to Ecuador and was not reported from North or Central America or elsewhere from South America [11]. We refer to these three scenarios as ‘recent admixture’, ‘founder plus drift’ and ‘ancient admixture’, respectively. In this follow-up study, we set out to revisit the three hypotheses for the origin of the C3* Y chromosomes in Ecuador. One possibility would be to sequence the Ecuadorian C3* Y chromosomes, and compare them with existing or additional East Asian C3* chromosome sequences, to determine the divergence time. However, the limited quantity and quality of DNA available did not allow this. We therefore followed another possibility, using genome-wide autosomal SNP genotyping.

Pathologic findings were graded according to a 5-point semi-quant

Pathologic findings were graded according to a 5-point semi-quantitative severity-based scoring system as: 0 = normal lung parenchyma, 1 = changes in 1–25%, 2 = changes in 26–50%, 3 = changes in 51–75%, and 4 = changes in 76–100% of examined tissue (Araújo et al., 2010 and Chao et al., 2010). For recipients of GFP marrow transplants, frozen sections were treated with 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride (DAPI)-supplemented mounting medium (Vectashield, Vector Labs, Burlingame, CA), cover slipped and examined for GFP expression by confocal microscopy. Background autofluorescence this website was determined through examination

of 10 simultaneously prepared negative control sections that were stained with DAPI alone. Images were obtained using a Zeiss LSM-410 laser-scanning confocal microscope (Carl Zeiss Canada Ltd., Toronto, ON, Canada) equipped with GFP (green) and DAPI (blue) filter sets. The number of GFP+ cells per tissue area was determined by the point-counting technique (Weibel, 1990, Araújo et al., 2010 and Abreu et al., 2011) across 10 random, non-coincident microscopic fields. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase biotin-dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining was used in a blinded fashion by two pathologists to assay cellular apoptosis (Oliveira et al., 2009). Ten fields per section from the regions with cell apoptosis were examined at a magnification of 400×. A 5-point semi-quantitative

severity-based scoring system was used to assess the degree of apoptosis, graded as: 0 = normal lung parenchyma; 1 = 1–25%, 2 = 26–50%, 3 = 51–75%, and 4 = 76–100% of examined tissue. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to measure the relative levels of mRNA expression of vascular interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10, caspase-3, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, platelet derived growth

Pregnenolone factor (PDGF), and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Central slices of left lung were cut, collected in cryotubes, quick-frozen by immersion in liquid nitrogen and stored at −80 °C. Total RNA was extracted from the frozen tissues, using Trizol® reagent (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) according to the manufacturer’s recommendations. RNA concentration was measured by spectrophotometry in Nanodrop® ND-1000. First-strand cDNA was synthesized from total RNA using M-MLV Reverse Transcriptase Kit (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA). PCR primers for target gene were purchased (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA). Relative mRNA levels were measured with a SYBR green detection system using ABI 7500 Real-Time PCR (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA). All samples were measured in triplicate. The relative expression of each gene was calculated as a ratio of studied gene to control gene (acidic ribosomal phosphoprotein P0 [36B4]) and expressed as fold change relative to Sham-SAL. The following PCR primers were used: PDGF (NM_008808.

For example, during field reconnaissance in 2003, deposition of s

For example, during field reconnaissance in 2003, deposition of sediment and large woody material in the tributary mouth bar upstream of Anderson Creek was observed; in 2004, a bioengineering project constructed

included vegetation planting, reducing bank angle, removing the bar, and utilizing the sediment to construct rock-willow baffles along modified stream banks. Extraction of gravel from bars has EPZ-6438 cost occurred periodically in Anderson Creek immediately downstream of the confluence with Robinson Creek. Detailed surveys reach extend 1.3 km from the confluence of Robinson Creek with Anderson Creek to the Fairgrounds Bridge, adjacent to downtown Boonville (Fig. 1). Residences and commercial structures are present on both sides of the channel, including two other bridges (Fig. 4). Eroding channel banks are widespread, riparian trees present on the terrace are remnants of the former riparian Alectinib mw forest, and where present, tree roots are often exposed except where restoration planting within the channel has occurred. During field surveys in Robinson Creek during 2005 and 2008 we constructed a planimetric map (Fig. 4) by overlaying field data on a 2004 color photograph (Digital Globe, Inc; 1:6000). The top edge of the terrace bank

was defined from the photograph and approximated where obscured by vegetation. Longitudinal surveys, collected with an electronic distance meter (EDM) provided three profile data sets: thalweg profiles, bar surface profiles, and terrace edge profiles. We measured active channel width at the base of bank at irregular increments selected to document planimetric variation using a laser range finder and compass. Grain size measurements at eight locations followed the Wolman (1954) method. Bar and terrace heights were defined as the difference between the reach average thalweg elevations and the reach averaged Cyclin-dependent kinase 3 bar surface and terrace elevations, respectively.

To illustrate changes in transport capacity at the scale of the study reach due to changes in gradient in the lower study reach, we first compared bed shear stress,τo, at time one (t1) when Robinson Creek was at the elevation of the terrace, and at time two (t2), or the present: equation(1) t1 τo1=γRS1t1 τo1=γRS1 equation(2) t2 τo2=γRS2t2 τo2=γRS2where the specific weight of water (9807 N/m3) γ = ρwg, where ρw is the density of water and g is the acceleration of gravity; R is the hydraulic radius; and S1 is the slope at t1 and S2 is the slope at t2. We then compared bed shear stress, τo, to the critical shear stress needed to initiate particle motion, τc, to derive excess shear stress using the Shields equation: equation(3) τc=τ∗(ρs−ρw)g D50τc=τ∗(ρs−ρw)g D50where Shields parameter for mobility, τ* = 0.035 ( Parker and Klingeman, 1982), ρs and ρw are the density of sediment and water, respectively, and D50 is the average median grain size.

Support and data provided by the Japanese Ministry of Environment

Support and data provided by the Japanese Ministry of Environment ( were greatly appreciated. LSCE (Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l’Environnement) contribution No. 5057. SPOT-Image and the French national CNES-ISIS (Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales – Incentive for the Scientific use of Images from the SPOT system) program are also acknowledged for providing the SPOT data. “
“River deltas are constructed with surplus fluvial sediment that is not washed away by waves and currents or drowned by the sea. The waterlogged,

low gradient deltaic landscapes favor development of marshes and mangroves, which in turn, contribute organic materials to the delta. In natural conditions, deltas are dynamic systems that adapt to changes in boundary conditions

by advancing, Trametinib in vitro retreating, switching, aggrading, and/or drowning. However, most modern deltas are constrained in place by societal needs such as protecting residents, resources, and infrastructure or preserving biodiversity and ecosystem services. Human activities over the last century have inadvertently led to conditions that are unfavorable for deltas (Ericson et al., 2006 and Syvitski et al., 2009). New sediment input has been severely curtailed by trapping behind river dams. Distribution of the remaining sediment load across deltas or along their shores has been altered by engineering works. And accelerating eustatic sea level rise combined with anthropogenic subsidence favors marine flooding that surpasses the normal rate of sediment accumulation, leading in time to permanent drowning of extensive regions of the delta plains. Restoration is envisioned for extensively MLN8237 cell line altered deltas (e.g., Day et al., 2007, Kim et al.,

2009, Allison and Meselhe, 2010 and Paola et al., 2011), but in these mafosfamide hostile conditions virtually all deltas are becoming unstable and require strategies for maintenance. Availability of sediments is the first order concern for delta maintenance. Sediment budgets are, however, poorly constrained for most deltas (Blum and Roberts, 2009 and references therein). We know that fluvial sediments feed the delta plain (topset) and the nearshore delta front zone (foreset) contributing to aggradation and progradation respectively, but only limited quantitative information exists on the laws governing this sediment partition (Paola et al., 2011 and references therein). Except for deltas built in protective embayments (e.g., Stouthamer et al., 2011), the trapping efficiency appears remarkably small as over 50% of the total load may escape to the shelf and beyond (Kim et al., 2009 and Liu et al., 2009). Therefore, a key strategy for delta maintenance is a deliberate and rational sediment management that would optimize the trapping efficiency on the delta plain (e.g., Day et al., 2007, Kim et al., 2009, Allison and Meselhe, 2010 and Paola et al., 2011) and along the delta coast.