The expression of FasR, Fas-L was higher on CD4(+) T lymphocytes

The expression of FasR, Fas-L was higher on CD4(+) T lymphocytes than on CD8(+) CP-868596 T lymphocytes (10,36% vs 6,79% and 6,66% vs 5,63% respectively). The expression of Bcl-2 was comparable (91,9% and 93,75% respectively). The comparison between males and females showed higher percentage of CD4(+) lymphocytes on lymphocytes from girls’ blood (56% vs 38,69%, p=0.0003). The expression of FasR and Fas-L on CD4(+) T lymphocytes was higher on CD4(+) T lymphocytes from girls’ blood (13,8% vs 7,53% and 6,8% vs 6,52% respectively) but without statistical significance. Bcl-2 expression was higher on CD4(+)

T lymphocytes from boys’ blood (99,65% vs 89,7%) but without statistical significance. Similar pattern of FasR, Fas-L and Bcl-2 expression was noted on CD8(+) T lymphocytes analysed separately for girls’ and boys’ blood origin cells. The difference in Bcl-2 expression was more prominent than on CD4(+) T lymphocytes and reached statistical significance.

Conclusions: The lymphocytes from cord blood of boys showed the more immature immunophenotype than T lymphocytes from cord blood of girls’. Impaired apoptosis (as a consequence of low expression of FasR, Fas-L) in DAPT datasheet neonatal cells may contribute to prolonged inflammation in newborns after oxidative stress or infection.”
“Purpose: To develop mathematical formulae to aid the selection

of antibiotics most appropriate in the empirical treatment of infections.

Methods: Formulae quantifying the characteristics of antibiotics with regard to their cost and activity against associated bacterial isolates of given infections were derived from probability laws. Data from records of culture sensitivity test results were compiled and analysed to ascertain bacterial pathogen associations with infections and their sensitivities to prescribed antibiotics. Applicability of derived formulae was demonstrated in the rational

selection of antibiotics most appropriate in the empirical treatment of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in selected hospitals in Lesotho.

Results: Escherichia. coli, followed by Klebsiella spp, Proteus spp, non-haemolytic Streptococci, Streptococcus pyogenes and then, Pseudomonas spp were identified as the most common uropathogens at the hospitals studied. Two mathematical formulae were derived and used in quantifying activity and cost characteristics of prescribed antibiotics. Cefotaxime, followed by ciprofloxacin – were considered most appropriate for use in treating UTIs empirically among inpatients of the hospitals.

Conclusion: Quantifying and using procedurally antibacterial activities and cost characteristics of antibiotics provides a suitable means of making antibiotic choices in the empirical treatment of infections.”
“Objective: To describe the microbial flora associated with cochlear implants (CIs) removed for infectious and noninfectious indications.

Study Design: Prospective, controlled.

Setting: Academic, tertiary medical center.

4 compared with 9 0 femtoliter (fl); P= 02) First-trimester conc

4 compared with 9.0 femtoliter (fl); P=.02). First-trimester concentrations (multiples of the median) of ADAM-12 (1.14 compared with 1.04; P=.003), pregnancy-associated Selleckchem Linsitinib plasma protein-A (0.94 compared with 0.98; P=.04), and placental growth factor (0.83 compared with 1.04; P<.001) were significantly different in women who had development of preeclampsia compared with women in the control group. The optimal multivariable model included African American race, systolic blood pressure, BMI, education level, ADAM-12, pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A, and placental growth factor, and yielded an area under the curve of

0.73 (95% confidence interval 0.69-0.77) and a sensitivity of 46.1% (95% confidence interval 38.3-54.0) for 80% specificity.

CONCLUSION: A multivariable analysis of clinical data

and biochemical markers in the first trimester did not identify a model that had clinical utility for predicting preeclampsia in a nulliparous population at low risk. (Obstet Gynecol 2012; 119: 1234-42) DOI: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e3182571669″
“Background: Little information is available on the effect of second cytotoxic therapy in steroid-dependent children with minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS).

Methods: Response to second cytotoxic therapy and side effects were reviewed in 33 steroid-dependent and cyclophosphamide-resistant children with MCNS who received chlorambucil (n=11, group 1) or cyclophosphamide (n=22, group 2).

Results: Age at onset of nephrosis, beginning of first and second therapy, sex ratio, duration of nephrosis CDK inhibitor before first cytotoxic therapy, interval between first and second cytotoxic therapy, number of relapses, cumulative doses of steroids and length of remission off steroids before second therapy were STA-9090 similar between groups. Four patients (36.4%, p<0.05) in group 1 remained in remission for a median 34.0 months, whereas only 1 patient (4.5%) in group 2 did for 53.0 months. Two patients

in group 1 and 1 patient in group 2 became infrequent relapsers. Total number of nonrelapsers and infrequent relapsers was higher in group 1 (54.5%, p<0.05) than in group 2 (9.1%). Number of relapses and cumulative doses of steroids were reduced and length of remission off steroids was longer in group 1 than in group 2 (p<0.05). There was no difference between groups in frequency of side effects, and none had serious toxicity. However, the short period of follow-up in our study does not exclude the risk of azoospermia.

Conclusions: Our data suggest a superior effect of chlorambucil over cyclophosphamide in steroid-dependent and cyclophosphamide-resistant children with MCNS. A future randomized controlled clinical trial is required to confirm our findings.

91-0 99 The proposed control strategy based on these ANN models

91-0.99. The proposed control strategy based on these ANN models effectively controls the Fenton process for various effluent colour targets. For treating the RB49 synthetic wastewater

to meet the effluent colour targets of 550 and 1500 ADMI units, the required Fe(+2) doses were 13.0-84.3 and 5.5-34.6 mg L(-1) (Fe(+2)/H(2)O(2)= 3.0), resulting in average effluent colour values of 520 and 1494 units. On the other hand, an effluent colour target of 550 ADMI units was achieved for RBB synthetic wastewater. The required Fe(+2) doses were 14.6-128.0 mg L(-1); the average effluent colour values were 520 MAPK inhibitor units.

CONCLUSION: The Fenton process for textile wastewater treatment was effectively controlled using a control strategy applying the ANN models and ORP monitoring, giving the benefit of chemical cost savings. (C) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry”
“BACKGROUND: This study was aimed at investigating the recrystallization of magadiite into offretite in the presence of tetra methylammonium cations (TMA). The offretite was characterized by X-ray powder Ulixertinib diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, N(2) adsorption analysis, thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis. The influence of key

reaction parameters on the formation of offretite, including reaction time, TMA cations, potassium cations and the SiO(2)/Al(2)O(3) reactant ratio, were examined.

RESULTS: Well-crystallized offretite, which was composed of agglomerated samples,

was prepared from a dispersion with the molar composition: 3.6 K(2)O: 3.6 Na(2)O: 1.0 Al(2)O(3): 6.5 SiO(2): 320 H(2)O: 1.5 TMA(+) by heating at 140 degrees C for 3 days. The structure of offretite collapsed when the temperature rose above 1000 degrees C. The organic template was removed when the sample was calcined at 550 degrees C for 10 h.

CONCLUSION: Magadiite has been used to synthesize offretite with a high purity and well crystallized in the presence of tetramethylammonium cations. The results of the present study indicate the feasibility of a synthetic route to offretite through recrystallization of magadiite in the presence of tetramethylammonium cations. (C) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry”
“Objective: To investigate the role learn more of fluorescein angiography (FA) in the management of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in preterm newborns. Methods: An observational case series of 13 extremely low birth weight infants. From September 2009 to March 2010, 13 newborn infants with a gestational age <29 weeks end/or birth weight <1000 g underwent serial fluorescein angiography with RetCam (Clarity, Pleasanton, CA) every 2 weeks. The fluorescein angiograms were examined to optimize the timing of diagnosis of ROP and to investigate development of retinal and choroidal vascularization. Results: There were no side effects related to FA.

The increased photocurrent was attributed to the interconnected g

The increased photocurrent was attributed to the interconnected grain structure of the ZnO samples oxidized at higher temperature. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3592650]“

analysis of transgenic tobacco plants harboring the promoter of the Arabidopsis extensin gene atExt1 fused to the beta-glucuronidase gene coding sequence demonstrated expression of the transgene in stem tissues. The transgene was expressed in cells of the internal and external phloem at the nodal and internodal regions of the older parts of mature stems. In younger parts of the same stem, expression of the transgene was slightly modified: expression selleck inhibitor was detected in the internal phloem in the internodal areas. In the nodal areas, the phloem tissue and the surrounding parenchyma were stained, demonstrating transgene expression. Expression was also seen in the phloem of the inflorescence; it was non-specific at the junctions of the flowers to the inflorescence. beta-glucuronidase (reporter gene) staining was also

observed in the pollen grains and at the base of the corolla.”
“Reliable characterization of locomotor dynamics of human walking is vital to understanding the neuromuscular control of human locomotion and disease diagnosis. However, the inherent oscillation and ubiquity of noise in such non-strictly periodic signals pose great challenges to current methodologies. To this end, we exploit the state-of-the-art technology in pattern recognition and, specifically, dimensionality reduction techniques, and propose to reconstruct and

characterize the dynamics accurately on the cycle scale of the signal. This is achieved by deriving this website a low-dimensional representation of the cycles through global optimization, which effectively preserves the topology of the cycles that are embedded in a high-dimensional Euclidian space. Our approach demonstrates a clear advantage in capturing the intrinsic dynamics and probing the subtle synchronization patterns from uni/bivariate oscillatory signals over traditional methods. Application to human gait data for healthy subjects and diabetics reveals a significant difference in the dynamics of ankle movements and ankle-knee coordination, but not in knee movements. These results indicate that the impaired sensory feedback from the feet due to diabetes does not influence the knee movement in general, and that normal human walking is not critically dependent on the feedback from the peripheral nervous system.”
“Substituted Al nanowires for use in future large scale integration interconnects were fabricated by self-aligned growth. The resistivity of an Al substituted nanowire 80 nm in width, 100 nm in height, and 20 mu m in length was 4.

05) more effective at inhibiting lipid oxidation than GSH over a

05) more effective at inhibiting lipid oxidation than GSH over a 7-day period. In contrast, with the exception of H(2)O(2) scavenging, GSH was a more effective antioxidant than PPH and the peptide fractions. We concluded that the PPH and some of its fractions have the potential to be used as therapeutic agents against chronic diseases that develop from oxidative damage, and that the cationic property of amino acids contributed negatively to the antioxidant activity of the peptide fractions. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder, caused by reduced levels of catecholamines and oxidative

stress. Symptoms seen in the disease include tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia and postural disability. Oxidative stress plays a key role in neurodegeneration and motor abnormalities seen in PD. Altered levels of the protein PF-03084014 in vivo caused by these changes lead to defective ubiquitin-proteasonne pathway. Neurodegeneration seen in PD and Canavan disease has a common mechanism. Recent studies suggest that herbal medicines can improve molecular changes and motor functions seen in

“Canola proteins were sequentially extracted from four Australian canola meals of different species and two industrial meal samples, according to Osborne method (OSB), based on their solubilities in water, 5% NaCl. 0.1 M NaOH and 70% ethanol respectively. GSK1120212 These extracts were then compared to the

glutelin fraction obtained by direct alkaline extraction method (DIR) in terms of protein yield, recovery, electrophoretic profile, and residual antinutritional components. The OSB method was found to be more effective for protein extraction which resulted in higher cumulative protein yield and recovery of water-soluble protein fractions, although the DIR method produced a glutelin fraction of higher protein content. Phenolic compounds were QNZ order observed in all the extracted protein fractions although sinapine, the major phenolic compound in canola, was present only in the albumin fractions. The glucosinolate content of all extracts was below the detection limit of the method employed (<3 mu mol/g). While the electrophoretic profiles of all four OSB fractions were largely different, the DIR fraction was very similar to the glutelins obtained from the OSB method. Isoelectric focusing revealed that many of the proteins in the canola varieties ranged in pl between pH4.6 and 8.3. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Proprioceptive tendon reflexes are traditionally regarded as tendon stretch reflexes. Eliciting reflexes with a sharp blow on a tendon is, however, not a physiological stimulus. Based on clinical experience in eliciting these reflexes and neurophysiological investigations it is suggested that vibration is a relevant stimulus for tendon jerks.

All patients gave informed consent Data sets were reconstructed

All patients gave informed consent. Data sets were reconstructed at 30%, 50%, and 70% ASIR-FBP blending. Two thoracic radiologists assessed image noise, visibility of small structures, lesion conspicuity, and diagnostic

confidence. Objective noise and CT number were measured in the thoracic aorta. CT dose index volume, dose-length product, weight, and transverse diameter were recorded. Data were analyzed by using analysis of variance and the Wilcoxon signed rank test.

Results: FBP had unacceptable noise at 40 and 75 mAs in 17 and five patients, respectively, whereas Sapitinib ASIR had acceptable noise at 40-150 mAs. Objective noise with 30%, 50%, and 70% ASIR blending (11.8 +/- 3.8, 9.6 +/- 3.1, and 7.5 +/- 2.6, respectively) was lower than that with FBP (15.8 +/- 4.8) (P < .0001). No lesions were missed on FBP or ASIR images. Lesion conspicuity was graded as well seen on both FBP and ASIR images (P < .05). Mild pixilated blotchy texture was noticed with 70% blended ASIR images.

Conclusion: Acceptable image quality can be obtained for chest CT images acquired Selleckchem CAL 101 at 40 mAs by using ASIR without any substantial artifacts affecting diagnostic confidence. (C)RSNA, 2011″
“Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNP A1) is a RNA binding protein that plays important role in the biogenesis of mRNA, such as alternative splicing and mRNA stabaity. We have previously demonstrated that hnRNP A1 has diminished

protein levels and shows cytoplasmic accumulation in senescent human diploid fibroblasts. Recent reports showed that p38 MAP kinase Selleckchem VX-680 (p38 MAPK), a member of the MAP kinase family is necessary and sufficient for the cytoplasmic accumulation of hnRNP A1 by stress stimuli such as osmotic shock. p38 MAP kinase has been shown to be involved in cell proliferation and the

induction of senescence in response to extracellular stimuli. However, the relationship between hnRNP A1 and p38 MAPK and the roles of hnRNP A1 in cellular senescence have not yet been elucidated. Here we show that hnRNP A1 forms a complex with phospho-p38 MAPK in vivo. Inhibition of p38 MAPK activity with SB203580 elevated hnRNP A1 protein levels and prohibited the cytoplasmic accumulation of the protein, but not hnRNP A2, in senescent cells. The phosphorylation level of hnRNP A1 was elevated in senescent cells. Reduction of hnRNP A1 and A2 levels by siRNA transfection induced a senescence-like morphology and elevated the level of F-actin, a marker of senescence. These results suggest that the expression levels and subcellular distribution of hnRNP A1 are regulated in a p38 MAPK-dependent manner, probably via its phosphorylation. Our results also suggest that hnRNP A2 in addition to hnRNP A1 may play a role in establishing the senescence phenotype.”
“A comparison study was carried out to determine the effect of different types of compounding technique, i.e.

“SETTING: Resource-limited settings in sub-Saharan African

“SETTING: Resource-limited settings in sub-Saharan African countries.

OBJECTIVE: To utilise African giant pouched rats (Cricetomys gambianus) for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in human sputum.

DESIGN: A specially designed cage with 10 sniffing holes and cassette-carrier was used. The sputum samples were put in the sample cassette, containing 10 samples in line, placed under matching sniffing holes. Rats were trained to sniff each consecutive sample, and indicate TB positives by fixing their nose for 5 seconds at the sniffing hole. This behaviour was maintained by food reinforcement

upon correct indications. A total of 3416 samples were used.

RESULTS: Of the 20 trained rats, 18 were able to discriminate positive from negative sputum samples, with average daily sensitivities ranging from 72% to 100%, and average daily false-positives ranging from 0.7% to 8.1%. The use of multiple rats significantly increased sensitivity and negative predictive value.

CONCLUSION: Utilising trained sniffer rats for TB detection is a potentially faster screening method and is at least as sensitive as

smear microscopy. This method could therefore be suitable for active case finding, especially where large numbers of samples are to be analysed in resource-limited settings, to complement existing diagnostic techniques.”
“Background: Identification of high-risk individuals is crucial for effective implementation of type 2 diabetes mellitus prevention programs. Several studies have shown that multivariable predictive selleck chemicals llc functions perform as well as the 2-hour post-challenge glucose in identifying these high-risk individuals.

The performance of these functions in Asian populations, where the rise in prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus is expected to be the greatest in the next several decades, is relatively unknown.

Methods: Using data from three Asian populations in Singapore, we compared the performance of three multivariate predictive models in terms of their discriminatory power and calibration quality: the San Antonio Health Study model, Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities model and the Framingham model.

Results: The San Antonio Health Study and Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities models had better discriminative powers than using only fasting plasma glucose or the 2-hour AC220 in vitro post-challenge glucose. However, the Framingham model did not perform significantly better than fasting glucose or the 2-hour post-challenge glucose. All published models suffered from poor calibration. After recalibration, the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities model achieved good calibration, the San Antonio Health Study model showed a significant lack of fit in females and the Framingham model showed a significant lack of fit in both females and males.

Conclusions: We conclude that adoption of the ARIC model for Asian populations is feasible and highly recommended when local prospective data is unavailable.


“Enhancement AICAR PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitor of magneto-optic effects by strong electric fields induced by plasmon resonances in metallic nanoparticles

placed on (or embedded into) garnets is discussed. Theoretical and computational results on excitation of plasmon resonances in such particles are reported and compared to available experimental data. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3367981]“
“This study evaluated the dimensional stability of the poly-methylmethacrylate (PMMA) denture bases under the effect of different metallic flask closure techniques (FCT) and investment materials, (IM). Sixty stone cast maxillary-wax base plate sets were randomly assigned to six groups (n = 10) for the following treatments: 1 and 4-stone or silicone investments and flask closure with clamp; 2 and 5-stone or silicone investments and flask closure with RS system; 3 and 6-stone or silicone investments and flask closure with screws. PMMA denture bases were polymerized in a water bath at 74 degrees C for 9 h. PMMA base-stone cast sets were sectioned at regions (R) of the canines, first molars, and posterior palatal zone. Gap discrepancies were measured at five points: right and left ridge crests, palatal midline, and right and left marginal limits of the flanges. An optical micrometer with accuracy of 0.0005 mm was used

for measurement purposes. Data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey’s test (alpha = 0.05). Silicone showed an adaptation mean (0.177 mm) CYT387 price significantly different when compared with stone (0.207 mm). The RS system presented a statistically different adaptation mean (0.1.66 mm) in relation to the traditional clamp (0.200 mm) and flask with screws (0.211 mm). Adaptation values for the

regions of the canines (0.141 mm), first molars (0.185 mm), and posterior palatal (0.250 mm) were statistically different. For all flask closure techniques, better adaptation was shown with the RS system and silicone investment. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 116: 1467-1474, 2010″
“Background: click here Current FDA-approved therapeutic options for patients with metastatic melanoma include dacarbazine, interleukin 2, ipilimumab, vemurafenib, dabrafenib, and trametinib, but long-term tumor regression using available agents remains out of reach for most patients. Adoptive cell transfer (ACT) with autologous tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) has shown encouraging results in clinical trials, with evidence of durable ongoing complete responses in patients with advanced melanoma. Emerging techniques to engineer T-cell receptors (TCRs) or chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) using lymphocytes from peripheral blood may offer new tactics in ACT

Methods: We reviewed the literature to provide a synopsis on the development and clinical trial results of ACT, as well as the future outlook for using ACT in patients with metastatic melanoma.

However, seizures as a result of cancer treatment, metabolic caus

However, seizures as a result of cancer treatment, metabolic causes, or paraneoplastic diseases may occur in patients with systemic cancer, even in the absence of a cerebral lesion. The etiology of seizures in brain tumor patients

includes primary cerebral neoplasms and metastatic brain lesions. The treatment for seizures in this population is multifaceted and involves surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, and antiepileptic drugs. All treatments have potential adverse effects, especially when combined. The treatment for brain tumor-associated seizures and epilepsy almost always is geared toward treating the tumor, but subsequent treatment of seizures often is necessary. A pragmatic approach to this problem is essential to mitigate potential complications from treatment.”
“Purpose: To evaluate the effects of hyperthermia on testicular steroidogenesis 3-Methyladenine cell line in a rat model. Materials and Methods: Three-month-old and 20-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups of

10 rats each, a control group and a hot-bath group for each age. selleck chemicals llc The rats in the hot-bath groups received multiple 10-min treatments in a hot bath (41-43 degrees C) over a period of 4 weeks. Testicular testosterone, serum testosterone and serum luteinizing hormone levels were measured. The protein levels of 2 steroidogenic enzymes, StAR and P450c17, were measured by Western blot. The testes were examined histologically by light microscopy. Results: Testicular testosterone levels of the 20-month-old, but not the 3-month-old, rats in the hot-bath group were significantly lower than those in the control group (p < 0.05). Serum testosterone levels of both the old and the Selleckchem Entinostat young hot-bath groups tended to decrease compared with their corresponding controls, although the differences were not statistically significant. Serum luteinizing hormone levels changed insignificantly after the hot baths in both age groups. The hot-bath treatment had no significant effect on P450c17 protein levels, whereas the protein level of StAR was significantly lower in the old hot-bath

group than in the same-age control group (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Hyperthermia significantly decreased the testicular testosterone level in old male rats and significantly lowered the StAR protein level. These data imply that frequent hot baths might impair testicular steroidogenesis, especially in old men. Copyright (C) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Background: Surgical site infections increase the incidence of morbidity and mortality as well as health-care expenses. The cost of care increases threefold to fourfold as a consequence of surgical site infection after spinal surgery. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of subcutaneous fat thickness in the development of surgical site infection following cervical spine fusion surgery.

(C) 2013 Phytochemical Society of Europe Published by Elsevier B

(C) 2013 Phytochemical Society of Europe. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“BACKGROUND: Indonesia bears the third highest tuberculosis (TB) burden in the world. Current mortality estimates are based on notification and case fatality rates derived from the National TB Control Programme.

OBJECTIVE: To report TB mortality measures for 2007-2008 based

on death registration systems in selected click here populations in five provinces of Indonesia.

METHODS: Data were compiled from sites in Central Java, Lampung, Gorontalo, West Kalimantan and Papua in 2007-2008, covering 2.5 million people. Overall mortality levels and TB mortality indicators were computed. Data quality was assessed in terms of completeness of death Acalabrutinib solubility dmso registration and strength of evidence in verbal autopsy questionnaires.

RESULTS: A total of 1547 TB deaths were diagnosed in the five provinces. There was direct or indirect evidence of incomplete death registration at all sites. More than 90% of TB diagnoses from verbal autopsies were based on strong evidence. The results demonstrate high TB death rates in Papua, and significant mortality differentials across provinces.


The measurement of cause-specific mortality is feasible by strengthening death registration in Indonesia. Observed TB mortality rates from five sites are baseline evidence for monitoring TB control programmes. Sustained efforts are required to develop death registration as a routine annual source of mortality data for Indonesia.”
“New benzoic acid derivative (1), together with five known compounds has been isolated

from the inflorescences of Piper cf. cumanense Kunth (Piperaceae). The structure was identified on basis of spectroscopic analysis and comparison with literature data. The compound (1) showed antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi and Botrytis cinerea. (C) 2013 Phytochemical Society of Europe. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“OBJECTIVES: To retrospectively assess the proportion of contacts tested with QuantiFERON (R)-TB Gold (QFT-G) compared to the tuberculin skin test (TST) who were successfully evaluated and treated for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), and to assess the correlation of positive test results with measures of TB exposure.

METHODS: Contacts of culture-confirmed pulmonary TB cases reported to the San Francisco Department of Public Health between 1 March 2005 and 31 December 2007 were included.

RESULTS: Of 1291 contacts meeting the eligibility criteria, 641 (50%) were tested with QFT-G and 650 (50%) with TST. Contacts tested with QFT-G were more likely to complete evaluation (64% vs.