Gel fraction of hydrogel increased with the increasing dose sugge

Gel fraction of hydrogel increased with the increasing dose suggesting a denser composite at 50 kGy compared to 35 kGy. SEM photomicrographs revealed a homogenous pores distribution at higher dose with pore sizes ranging from 1 to 5 mu m. Hydrogel synthesized at lower dose of electron beam exhibited higher swelling ability and the degree of swelling increased as the pH of surrounding medium increased and it reached the optimum swelling at pH 7. While. swelling of the hydrogel decreased with the increasing ionic Selleck AZD6094 strength of solution, swelling at different temperatures ranging from

25 to 50 C revealed a unique character where the hydrogel shrunk at 37 C. Moreover, hydrogel synthesized at higher dose exhibited a higher degree of swelling in methanol with respect to water. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 116: 2920-2929, 2010″
“Evaluation of: Grove J, Nielson S, Zhong J et al.: Identification of a residue in hepatitis C virus E2 glycoprotein that determines scavenger receptor B1 and CD81 receptor dependency and sensitivity to neutralizing antibodies. J. Vlrol. 82 (24), 12020-12029 (2008). Recent data suggest that a strong, early, broad neutralizing antibody response may contribute to the control of HCV

in the acute phase of infection. However, the majority of individuals fail to clear HCV during the first months following infection and develop chronic infection despite the presence of anti-HCV antibodies. A prerequisite of the understanding Pexidartinib purchase behind the mechanisms of viral escape from antibody-mediated neutralization is the identification of various host-entry factors mediating the first steps of viral infection – binding and entry of HCV is believed to be a multistep process involving HCV envelope glycoproteins El and E2 as well as several host-cell

surface molecules such Ricolinostat Epigenetics inhibitor as CID81, scavenger receptor class B type 1, members of the claudin family and occludin. In this article, Grove etal. describe a single mutation in the HCV envelope glycoprotein E2 that alters glycoprotein structure thereby modulating viral interaction with scavenger receptor class B type I and CD81, and increasing sensitivity to neutralizing antibodies. The results of this study highlight the importance of the characterization of the interplay between HCV particles and host-cell factors for the understanding of virus neutralization by host-immune responses and pathogenesis of HCV infection.”
“Stroke rehabilitation is evolving into a clinical field based on the neuroscience of recovery and restoration. There has been substantial growth in the number and quality of clinical trials performed. Much effort now is directed toward motor restoration and is being led by trials of constraint-induced movement therapy.

Plasma levels of amitriptyline and nortriptyline obtained after a

Plasma levels of amitriptyline and nortriptyline obtained after a single oral dose of amitriptyline can be used to prediction of drug exposure and to the early adjustment of the dosage regimen.”
“Background and objective: Radiotherapy and an increasing number of substances are implicated in the pathogenesis of interstitial lung disease (ILD). While the frequency of published data on more SNX-5422 datasheet common ILD entities such as the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias has increased in recent

years, less attention has been given to relatively rarely occurring forms such as drug-/radiation-induced ILD. Methods: Data from the UK-based General Practice Research Database (GPRD) was used to estimate the incidence of drug-/radiation-induced ILD over a 12-year period (19972008). Crude incidence rates were stratified by gender, age group and calendar period, and rate ratios were adjusted using Poisson regression. All-cause mortality was modelled using Cox regression,

and characteristics at diagnosis were compared with a random sample of matched, non-ILD controls using conditional logistic regression. Results: A total of 128 patients with selleck an incident diagnosis of drug-/radiation-induced ILD were identified, and the overall incidence density during the study period was 4.1 (95% confidence interval 3.44.9) per million person-years. Incidence rates increased during the time period 19972005 and decreased thereafter. The adjusted all-cause mortality was >4 times higher in cases compared with controls. Conclusions: This UK population-based study characterizes patients diagnosed with drug-/radiation-induced ILD and quantifies incidence and all-cause mortality during 19972008. No statistically

significant time trend in incidence was found, despite having observed numeric increases in incidence rates during the study window. Future research using the GPRD and other data sources is required to better understand the disposition of patients diagnosed DMH1 order with drug-/radiation-induced ILD and to investigate potential trends incidence and mortality over time.”
“Background: The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Data portal provides a platform for researchers to search, download, and analysis data generated by TCGA. The objective of this study was to explore the molecular mechanism of ovarian cancer pathogenesis.

Methods: Microarray data of ovarian cancer were downloaded from TCGA database, and Limma package in R language was used to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between ovarian cancer and normal samples, followed by the function and pathway annotations of the DEGs. Next, NetBox software was used to for the gene-gene interaction (GGI) network construction and the corresponding modules identification, and functions of genes in the modules were screened using DAVID.

Early postoperative pulmonary function was higher with ASF and PS

Early postoperative pulmonary function was higher with ASF and PSF as compared to both VATS groups (P < AS1842856 research buy 0.05). Comparing all curve types, VATS-I showed a small decline of absolute FEV(1) compared to PSF at 2-years follow-up. Comparing thoracic curves, however, no differences in FEV(1) or FVC were noted at 6 to 12 months until 2-years follow-up. The

rate of recovery (K) was equivalent for all surgical approaches and curve types.

Conclusion. Compared to ASF or PSF, VATS procedures showed an initial decline in pulmonary function, which resolved fully by 6- to 12-months follow-up. Modest declines in maximal pulmonary function with VATS-I were seen when comparing all curve types together but not when comparing Lenke 1 curves alone. VATS procedures for thoracic scoliosis and open approaches for thoracolumbar curve types were associated with minimal to no permanent deficits.”
“The rDNA genes coding for ribosomal RNA in animals are complicated repeat sequences with high GC content. We amplified water buffalo rDNA gene sequences with the long and accurate (LA) PCR method, using LA Taq DNA polymerase and GC buffer, based on bioinformatic analysis of related organisms. The rDNA genes were found to consist of 9016 nucleotides, including three rRNA genes see more and two internal transcribed spacers (ITS), which we named 18S rRNA, ITS1, 5.8S rRNA,

ITS2 and 28S rRNA. We tested and optimized Alvocidib datasheet conditions for cloning these complicated rDNA sequences, including specific rules of primer design, improvements in the reaction system, and selection of the DNA polymerase.”

Design. Clinical study correlating preoperative pulmonary function tests (PFTs) to radiographic measures of thoracic deformity severity in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients.

Objective. To determine (1) the incidence of clinically relevant (<65% predicted value) pulmonary impairment in AIS patients; (2) if patients with more severe deformity have greater impairment of PFTs than those with lesser deformity; (3) the effect, if any, of juvenile onset deformity (onset <age 10) on preoperative PFTs.

Summary of Background Data. Patients with late-onset (adolescent) spinal deformity are generally believed to have no respiratory morbidity except in severe curves exceeding 100 degrees.

Methods. A large multicenter database of surgically treated AIS patients with Lenke 1 to Lenke 4 curves was queried to report preoperative PFTs and correlate them with radiographic measures of coronal, sagittal, and axial plane deformities.

Results. Nineteen percent of 858 patients had <65% predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) and forced vital capacity (FVC) before surgery, and had larger main thoracic (MT) curves and greater axial rotation than those with predicted PFT values >65%.

“Currarino syndrome was first described as a triad by Guid

“Currarino syndrome was first described as a triad by Guido Currarino, an American radiologist in 1981. It is an autosomal dominant hereditary disease known by the triad of anorectal stenosis, anterior sacral defect, and a presacral mass that is most often an anterior sacral meningocele.

We represent a 3 year boy with refractory constipation from birth, which had been wrongly diagnosed and treated as Hirschsprung’s disease since early childhood. The patient underwent urgent colostomy because of water intoxication

due to bowel irrigation, and following investigations (CT, MRI) revealed anorectal anomaly and presacral mass compatible with Curarrino’s SRT2104 concentration syndrome.

Definitive operation was done with perineal approach, posterior sagittal anorectoplasty, with interval colostomy closure 2 months after perineal operation. An uncomplicated postoperative recovery ensued. The patient’s bowel habits successfully returned to normal soon after the operation. INCB024360 in vitro A multidisciplinary diagnostic and therapeutic protocol is presented. Main points are rectal examination, sacrum x-Ray, molecular genetic diagnosis, radiologic evaluation of every member of Currarino syndrome families, CT scan, magnetic resonance (MR) evaluation of patient spine and pelvis and suction rectal biopsies. If the mass

is a meningocele, colostomy and neurosurgical exploration should precede anoplasty due to the risk of meningitis.”
“Purpose: To evaluate the protective effect of Artemisia annua infusion against malaria in a community that uses it as herbal ‘tea’ for malaria prevention.

Methods: 132 SBE-β-CD flower farm workers who met the study inclusion criteria and were not yet using A. annua infusion

were randomized either to A. annua or placebo groups in the ratio of 1: 1. Treatments were administered once a week under direct observation to participants. Malaria episodes were documented over a 9-month period while adverse effects were documented over 12 months.

Results: A. annua herbal ‘tea’ significantly reduced the risk of suffering more than one episode of malaria in nine months by 55 % (12/67 vs 26/65, p = 0.005 No participant experienced any serious adverse effect although bitter taste was the most common side effect of the infusion.

Conclusion: Artemisia annua infusion consumed once a week was effective in preventing multiple episodes of malaria in humans living in malaria endemic areas. However, its bitter taste and the risk of development of malaria parasite resistance to the artemisinin contained in it remain major challenges for its use in the mass control of malaria.”
“Q fever is a worldwide zoonosis caused by the intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetti. Autoimmune phenomena associated with the disease may obscure the clinical picture, and in many reports mislead physicians to an initial diagnosis of an autoimmune disease.

After a hernia diagnosis or repair, 86% of patients were able to

After a hernia diagnosis or repair, 86% of patients were able to continue with PD.

Conclusions: The incidence of abdominal hernia and hernia management in patients on PD do not significantly influence residual renal function or PD technique survival. Timely management of hernias is advisable

and does not preclude continuation with PD as a dialysis modality.”
“In some definite patients, a standard neurophysiological tool may not solve a complete differential diagnosis in common nerve peroneal neuropathy. In selleck compound this study we have assessed a new simple procedure to study the orthodromic sensory conduction of both the superficial peroneal nerves (SPN) and deep peroneal nerves (DPN) in a heterogeneous group of 55 normal subjects. The mean sensory orthodromic conduction velocity of the SPN was 58.35 m/s. The mean sensory orthodromic conduction velocity of the mixed nerve action potential (MNAP) of the DPN was 55.27 m/s. The sensory conduction velocity, the amplitude of sensory-evoked Smoothened Agonist potentials of SPN and DPN across the fibular head and the normative values are discussed. Our results confirm that these recording methods are easy to repeat and reliable in identifying peroneal neuropathy.”
“Walnuts and almonds were selected as complex model systems in order to study possible interactions

among oxidisable substances, pro-oxidant species and antioxidants. Lipoxygenase activities in a direct-micelle system were determined for these nuts according

their globulin contents in their soluble protein fraction. Walnut lipoxygenase activity was 1.5 times higher than that of almonds. Among antioxidant compounds, hydrophilic contents were analysed in these nuts, hence, Selleckchem A-1155463 extractable, hydrolysable and condensed phenolic compound fractions were determined as well as lipophilic phenolic concentration corresponding to tocopherol fraction. Extracts of brown skins and whole walnuts have significantly higher phenolic contents than those of almonds. Radical scavenging activities of phenolic extracts were measured. Besides, the experiments demonstrated the ability of all nut extracts to inhibit the coupled oxidation of linoleic acid with beta-carotene induced by lipoxygenase. The antioxidant substances were mainly found in nut brown skins. Walnut extracts showed higher antioxidant activity than those of almonds. Lipoxygenase pro-oxidant activity was also measured in AOT reverse micelles in conditions that model these nuts. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The main data on oral health and dental pathologies affecting Alzheimer’s disease ( AD) patients were reviewed. Oral health declines and dental pathologies increase with progression of AD. Poor oral hygiene, difficulty in wearing dentures, and the inability to self-care, including carrying out oral hygiene procedures are the most probable cause of impaired oral health in AD.

Epicardial flow measured by percentage with Thrombolysis In Myoca

Epicardial flow measured by percentage with Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) 3 flow improved from 52 % (pre-PCI) to 89 % (post-PCI) in those assigned to facilitated PCI. ST segment resolution was stratified by complete (70 % or greater), partial (less than 70

% to 30 %) or no (less than 30 % to 0 %) resolution. The baseline mean ST segment elevation was 11.3 +/- 7.5 mm in the facilitated PCI patients and 11.8 +/- 7.1 mm in patients with TNK alone (P=0.66). Complete STR in the facilitated PCI patients versus the TNK-alone patients was present in 55.6 % versus 54.6 %, respectively (P=0.58) at 180 min and 62.0 % versus 55.3 % (P=0.64), respectively at day 1. The mean STR at 180 min and day 1 were find more similar in patients who experienced death, reinfarction, recurrent unstable ischemia or stroke at six months compared with patients who remained event free: 56.3 % versus 64.6 % at 180 min (P=0.40); and 67.7 % versus 67.6 % at day 1 (P=0.99), respectively.CONCLUSIONS:

TNK-facilitated PCI did not demonstrate differences in ST segment resolution compared with TNK alone, despite improvement in epicardial flow after PCI. Further studies are required to clarify these findings.”
“Quality of life (QoL)

is a ubiquitous yet poorly defined concept; the precise determinants of QoL are rarely identified. We used pilot data from the GapS Questionnaire to investigate the most important determinants of QoL in children with chronic somatic illness.

We enrolled 92 participants including 60 parents and 32 of their children. The sample comprised rheumatology, diabetes, epilepsy, gastroenterology, cystic fibrosis, and day unit patients. Trained interviewers administered Emricasan manufacturer the GapS Questionnaire to parents, and to children if a parts per thousand yen10 years. We determined the relative importance of different items

for QoL.

Child participants had a mean age of 14.7 years. Children identified “”having good friendships”", “”being happy most days”", and “”getting along with parents”" as most important. Parents ranked most highly “”being allowed to do all the things you like doing”", “”getting told you have done a good job at something”", and “”being physically able to do everything you enjoy doing”".

Physical health items were not as important as social and psychological determinants of QoL in our pilot sample.”
“Purpose: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of intermediate frequency (IF) fields generated by induction heating (IH) cooktops from the perspective of cellular genotoxicity and stress responses.

Materials and methods: We evaluated the effects of exposure to 23 kHz magnetic fields at 6.05 mT(rms) for 2 h on cellular genotoxicity and stress responses in vitro. The maximum output power in most IH cooktops is at this frequency.

We evaluated the effect of UA and allopurinol use on clinical out

We evaluated the effect of UA and allopurinol use on clinical outcome in patients with HF.

Methods and Results: We evaluated patients with a diagnosis of HF at a Health Maintenance Organization (n = 6204). Patients

were followed for cardiac-related hospitalizations and death. Mean UA levels were 6.5 +/- 1.9 mg/dL. Median follow-up was 498 days. We divided patients into quartiles of serum UA; 22.6% (n = 1,568) were in the highest UA level quartile (> 7.7 mg/dL). Cox regression analysis after adjustment for significant predictors including age, sex, ischemic heart disease, hypertension, atrial fibrillation, body mass index, hemoglobin, sodium, estimated glomerular filtration rate, urea levels, standard HF drug therapies, and allopurinol demonstrated that high UA levels (> 7.7 mg/dL) were a predictor of increased mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 1.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17-1.60; NVP-AUY922 cost P < .0001) and increased cardiac hospitalizations (HR 1.10, 95% CI 1.01-1.22; P < BTSA1 concentration .05). An increase in UA levels during follow-up was also an independent predictor of mortality (HR

1.46, 95% CI 1.25-1.71; P < .00001) and cardiac hospitalizations (HR 1.15, 95% CI 1.06-1.23; P < .00001). Treatment with allopurinol was independently associated with improved survival (HR 0.79, 95% CI 0.64-0.98; P < .05). Echocardiographic data demonstrated a significant correlation between UA levels and E/A ratio, a marker of diastolic dysfunction.

Conclusions: Increased UA levels and an increase in UA during follow-up were independent predictors of increased morbidity and mortality. Treatment with allopurinol was associated with improved survival. (J Cardiac Fail 2012;18:694-701)”
“Novel temperature-sensitive poly[N-isopropylacrylamide-co-2-hydroxyethylacrylate] [P(NIPAAm-HEAc)] colloidal crystals containing beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) were prepared. These reversibly tunable supramolecular

inclusion complexes display brilliant colors, due to the self-assembly SBC-115076 cost of several structured nanoparticles to form crystal structures. The hydrogels displayed rainbow colors upon the variation of the P-CD concentration and can be made either visible or invisible by simply changing the temperature. The inclusion complexes were characterized using NMR spectroscopy, laser light scattering, UV-visible spectroscopy, and viscometer measurements. Compared with the conventional poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) gel, the beta-CD-incorporated hydrogels in aqueous solution showed a lower critical solution temperature of about 57 degrees C, which can be attributed to the hydrogen bonding between P(NIPAAm-HEAc) included in P-CD and water, which is enhanced by the hydrophilic groups of beta-CD. The use of these materials as drug carriers was also evaluated by making use of their thermo-responsive behavior.

At baseline, the mean levels of HDL-c,

LDL-c, and triglyc

At baseline, the mean levels of HDL-c,

LDL-c, and triglycerides were 53.3 mg/dL, 114.4 mg/dL, and 149 mg/dL, respectively. HDL-c, LDL-c, and triglyceride concentrations significantly increased with mitotane therapy to a mean Nirogacestat cell line HDL peak (HDL-P) of 86.3 mg/dL (P < 0.001), a mean LDL peak of 160.1 mg/dL (P < 0.001), and a mean triglyceride peak (Tg-P) of 216.7 mg/dL (P = 0.042). HDL-P positively correlated with mitotane concentration (r = 0.52, P < 0.001), while LDL-P levels and Tg-P did not. Gender, body mass index, cortisol overproduction, baseline levels of HDL-c, and triglyceride did not predict change in HDL-c. Similar changes were noticed in subgroup analysis after excluding patients who were using lipid-lowering agents. In conclusion, in ACC patients, mitotane caused significant increases in HDL-c that may counteract the deleterious atherosclerotic effects of LDL-c and Tg rise. Understanding the mechanism of HDL change may lead to the discovery of novel HDL-c-elevating SB203580 manufacturer drugs.”
“Background: Our understanding of the pathogenic role of IgE in atopic dermatitis is incomplete. We asked whether blocking free IgE would alter the course of the disease.

Patients and Methods: We administered either omalizumab, a humanized monoclonal mouse antibody against IgE, or placebo subcutaneously for 16 weeks to 20 atopic dermatitis patients and measured immunological and clinical Liproxstatin-1 mouse disease parameters.


Omalizumab (I) reduced free serum IgE, (II) lowered surface IgE and Fc epsilon RI expression on different peripheral blood mononuclear cells, (III) reduced the saturation of Fc epsilon RI with IgE, (IV)

increased the number of free Fc epsilon RI and (V) lowered the number of IgE+, but not of Fc epsilon RI+ cells in skin. The in vivo relevance of these results is evidenced by the increase in the threshold allergen concentration required to give a type I hypersensitivity reaction in the titrated skin test. While not significantly altering the clinical disease parameters, omalizumab treatment led to an improvement of the atopy patch test results in single patients, i.e. an eczematous reaction upon epicutaneous allergen challenge.

Conclusions: The interference with immediate and delayed type skin tests may imply that a therapeutic benefit of omalizumab treatment, if present at all, would be seen in patients with acute rather than chronic forms of the disease.”
“The development of new surface acoustic wave devices exhibiting complicated electrode patterns or layered excitation transducers has been favored by an intense innovative activity in this area. For instance, devices exhibiting interdigital transducers covered by piezoelectric or dielectric layers have been fabricated and tested, but the design of such structures requires simulation tools capable to accurately take into account the actual shape of the wave guide elements.

This can cause small, closely spaced particles to appear with a l

This can cause small, closely spaced particles to appear with a lateral orientation that is rotated by 90 degrees. Considering both real space and spatial frequency space we find that a reasonable and useful definition of lateral Selleckchem Quisinostat resolution

of SICM is the smallest distance at which two small particles can clearly be resolved from each other in an image. We find that this resolution is approximately equal to three times the inner radius of the pipette tip opening. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.3122007]“
“Background: This crossover study compared fiber-optic assessment of laryngeal mask airway (LMA) position in children using two LMA insertion techniques, i.e., standard and rotational.

Methods: selleck chemicals llc Seventy-eight ASA I children, aged 2.5 months to 10 years, undergoing elective cataract surgery were included in this study. LMA was inserted in random order using either standard or rotational technique, removed, and thereafter crossed over to alternate technique. Positioning of LMA was assessed using fiber-optic bronchoscope with each technique. Change in the incidence of fiber-optic assessment grades 1 and 2 between two insertion techniques was measured as the primary outcome. Secondary outcome measures studied were first-attempt

success rate, overall success rate, time for successful insertion, visual analogue scale for placement, complications, and maneuvers used to relieve airway obstruction.

Results: Incidence of fiber-optic grades 1 and 2 was 61.5% with standard technique and increased to 92.3% with rotational technique (P < 0.001, McNemar’s test) (RR 3.0, 95% CI 2.2-4.2). Median (IQR) fiber-optic grading was significantly better with rotational technique [2 (1-2)] as compared to standard technique [2 (2-3)], (P < 0.001, Wilcoxon signed rank test). First-attempt success rate was significantly higher (96.2%) with rotational technique compared

with standard technique (80.7%) (P = 0.04, McNemar’s test). Overall success rate (i.e., successful insertion with two attempts) was 100% with rotational technique PD-1/PD-L1 phosphorylation compared with 89.7% with standard technique (P = 0.003, Fischer’s exact test). Time for successful insertion and incidence of complications were significantly lesser with rotational technique.

Conclusion: Rotational technique of LMA insertion in children is associated with better seating of LMA (as observed on fiber-optic assessment) compared with the standard technique. Also, it is associated with higher success rate and lower incidence of complications.”
“Genomic imprinting is a specialized transcriptional phenomenon that employs epigenetic mechanisms to facilitate parental-specific expression. Perturbations in parental epigenetic asymmetry can lead to the development of imprinting disorders, such as Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and Angelman syndrome. DNA methylation is one of the most widely studied epigenetic marks that characterizes imprinted regions.

While the

While the PD98059 ic50 bond with animals for companionship goes back 10000 – 15000 years, domestic pets are also capable of transmitting diseases and

causing injury. Zoonoses are one of the negative aspects to pet ownership and have consequences for individuals, especially those with compromised immunity such as patients with chronic kidney disease.

Three cases of peritonitis involving domestic pets occurring in the past 2 years have underlined the need for awareness of these unusual causes of peritonitis, as they are preventable episodes that can be easily addressed in the training and care of patients with pets.”
“A combinative method of HPLC fingerprinting and quantitative determination was successfully applied to monitor dynamic accumulation of ginsenosides in five-year-old Panax ginseng roots from different harvest times. The optimal chromatographic conditions were achieved on a C18 column with gradient elution using acetonitrile and 1mmol center dot L-1 KH2PO4 buffer

solution at 203nm. The result indicated that the contents of total ginsenosides showed significant Taselisib in vivo variations, and a decrease tendency appeared in the growth period of the fifth year.”
“Thin nanostructured gold films were deposited on SiO(2) by the sputtering technique at room temperature. Films of different thicknesses were deposited ranging from 2 to 16 nm. The film morphology as a function of the thickness was analyzed by microscopic techniques such as atomic force microscopy and transmission electron Anlotinib cell line microscopy. These analyses allowed us to clarify the growth mechanism of the gold nanograins forming the film: in a first stage of

growth (2-6 nm) normal grain growth proceeds; then (8-16 nm) the grain surface energy anisotropy drives the growth of abnormal large gold grains by annihilation of the normal ones. During the abnormal growth other normal grain continue to growth. The normal grain size distribution is showed to be a monomodal log-normal distribution that evolves toward larger mean grain radius continuously following a scaling law. By determination of the grain growth exponent, the kinetic mechanism responsible of the grain growth is demonstrated to be the gold atomic diffusion on grain boundaries. By fitting the experimental data using established theoretical models, the room-temperature gold grain boundary coefficient diffusion and mobility were derived. The abnormal grain grows, manifest itself as a bimodal grain size distribution: with the log-normal distribution of the normal grain size, a second Gaussian grain size distribution rises, shifting toward lower size increasing the film thickness. The abnormal grain growth continues until all the abnormal grain boundaries meet each other.