(C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved “
“P>1 Endocr

(C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“P>1. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are chemicals that interfere with proper hormonal functioning in exposed animals. They enter the natural environment through multiple sources, and many non-target wildlife species are exposed to them via several modes. Exposure causes altered hormone levels, importantly gonadal hormones, resulting in changed reproductive characteristics.\n\n2. Vertebrate male mating signals convey important mate quality information to females. These signals are dependent on androgens for their

production and maintenance. Female responses to signals depend on oestrogens. Disrupting these pathways jeopardizes signal production and reception, which has implications Selumetinib concentration for mating system ecology.\n\n3. Besides affecting various aspects of the vertebrate physiology, EDCs can impair hormonal functioning by binding to or blocking hormone receptors,

or by altering production and function of hormones or hormone receptors.\n\n4. We consider the ecological implications of multi-generational signal disruption by EDCs. Altered signals can influence population dynamics and sex ratios; local extinctions are possible. Community-level dynamics may be affected via interspecific dependence on signals or population fluctuations.\n\n5. We then address the evolutionary effects of 432 EDC-altered male mating signals in vertebrates and discuss how females may respond to altered signals over Stattic chemical structure Napabucasin evolutionary time. Trans-generational reduction in signal reliability can lead to reduced preference and eventual loss of the signal trait and to the evolution of new traits as signals of mate quality. Genetic divergence between endocrine disrupted and undisrupted populations may result, perhaps giving rise to speciation.\n\n6. Finally, we recommend areas of research to further explore some of the issues addressed in this review. We suggest field surveys to document

existing alterations in mating systems and genetic divergence in endocrine disrupted populations. Long-term mesocosm studies and mathematical models would be useful to predict the fate of mating signals and female responses as a result of prolonged endocrine disruption. EDCs have been the focus of ecotoxicology for some time now, and we feel that this analysis should now enter the realm of evolutionary biology to determine the subtle, yet far-reaching effects on exposed non-target wildlife.”
“Spatial and temporal dissection of the genomic changes occurring during the evolution of human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) may help elucidate the basis for its dismal prognosis. We sequenced 25 spatially distinct regions from seven operable NSCLCs and found evidence of branched evolution, with driver mutations arising before and after subclonal diversification.

Moreover, PMA-induced IL-1 beta production was significantly redu

Moreover, PMA-induced IL-1 beta production was significantly reduced

in the presence of TLR2, buy H 89 TLR4, and CD11b Abs. Rottlerin, a PKC delta-specific inhibitor, significantly reduced PMA-induced IL-1 beta production as well as CD11b, TLR2 expression, and IRAK1-JNK activation. In PKC delta wild-type overexpressing THP1 cells, IRAK1 kinase activity and IL-1 beta production were significantly augmented, whereas recombinant inactive PKCd and PKCd small interfering RNA significantly inhibited basal and PMA-induced IRAK1 activation and IL-1 beta production. Endogenous PKC delta-IRAK1 interaction was observed in quiescent cells, and this interaction was regulated by PMA. IRAK1/4 inhibitors, their small interfering RNAs, and JNK inhibitor also attenuated PMA-induced AZD8055 IL-1 beta production. NF-kappa B activation inhibitor and SN50 peptide inhibitor, however, failed to affect PMA-induced IL-1 beta production. A similar role of IRAK1 in IL-1 beta production and its regulation by PKC delta was evident in the primary human monocytes, thus signifying the importance of our finding. To our knowledge, the results obtained demonstrate for the first time that IRAK1 and PKCd functionally interact to regulate IL-1 beta production in monocytic cells. A novel mechanism of IL-1 beta production that 3 involves TLR2, CD11b,

and the PKC delta/IRAK1/JNK/AP-1 axis is thus being proposed. The Journal of Immunology, 2011, 187: 2632-2645.”
“Adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) is considered as a long-term complication of spinal fusion procedure. Numerous clinical studies have reported some factors related PP2 with ASD, but few could address the reason why the incidence of caudal ASD is significantly lower than that of cranial ASD. Because the pedicle of vertebral arch is closer to the superior endplate of vertebrea and its cranial intervertebral disc, there might be some possibilities of malpositions of pedicle probe or screws

into the superior vertebral endplate or disc during the procedure of posterior intervertebral fusion. A number of evidences have showed that puncture of intervertebral disc will result in disc degeneration. Thus the authors put forward the hypothesis that intraoperative malposition of pedicle probe or screws might be a cause of ASD at cranial segments. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: In this study, we examined the clinical application of two training methods for optimizing reading ability in patients with juvenile macular dystrophy with established eccentric preferred retinal locus and optimal use of low-vision aids.\n\nMethod: This randomized study included 36 patients with juvenile macular dystrophy (35 with Stargardt’s disease and one with Best’s disease). All patients have been using individually optimized low-vision aids.

The intrinsic biorecognition potential of nucleic acids combined

The intrinsic biorecognition potential of nucleic acids combined with advanced properties of the locked selleck inhibitor nucleic acids (LNAs) provide opportunities to develop new nanomaterials and devices like sensors, aptamers, and machines. In this Account, we describe recent research on preparation and investigation of the properties of LNA/DNA hybrids containing functionalized 2′-amino-LNA nucleotides. By application of different chemical reactions, modification of 2′-amino-LNA scaffolds can be efficiently performed in high yields and with various tags, postsynthetically or during the automated

oligonucleotide synthesis. The choice of a synthetic method for scaffolding along 2′-amino-LNA mainly depends on the chemical nature of the modification,

its price, its availability, and applications of the product. One of the most useful applications of the product LNA/DNA scaffolds containing 2′-amino-LNA is to detect complementary DNA and RNA targets. Examples of these applications include sensing of clinically important single-nucleotide 3 polymorphisms (SNPs) and imaging of nucleic acids in vitro, in cell culture, and in vivo. According to our studies, 2′-amino-LNA scaffolds are efficient within diagnostic probes for DNA and RNA targets and as therapeutics, whereas both 2′-amino- and isomeric 2′-alpha-L-amino-LNA scaffolds have promising properties for stabilization and detection of DNA nanostructures.

4SC-202 molecular weight Attachment of fluorescent groups to the 2′-amino group results in very high fluorescent quantum yields of the duplexes and remarkable sensitivity of the fluorescence signal to target binding. Notably, fluorescent LNA/DNA probes bind nucleic acid targets with advantages of high affinity and specificity. Thus, molecular motion of nanodevices and programmable self-assembly of chemically modified LNA/DNA nanomaterials can be followed by bright fluorescence signaling from BX-795 the functionalized LNA units. Another appealing aspect of the amino-LNA scaffolds is specific targeting of nucleic acids and proteins for therapeutic applications. 2′-Amino-LNA/DNA conjugates containing peptide and polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) groups are promising in this context as well as for advanced imaging and diagnostic purposes in vivo. For imaging applications, photostability of fluorescence dyes is of crucial importance. Chemically stable and photostable fluorescent PAH molecules attached to 2′-amino functionality of the 2′-amino-LNA are potent for in vitro and in vivo imaging of DNA and RNA targets. We believe that rational evolution of the biopolymers of Nature may solve the major challenges of the future material science and biomedicine. However, this requires strong scientific progress and efficient interdisciplinary research.

2%), while a majority of the FQ-susceptible isolates from the non

2%), while a majority of the FQ-susceptible isolates from the non-HIV patients were found to harbour pap (48.4%), sfa/foc (41.9%) and kpsA411 (48.4%) and were classified as UPEC (40.5%). We conclude that antibiotic-resistant (ESBL(+)AmpC(+) and/or FQ(R)) phylogroup D isolates with limited virulence are competent enough to establish infections in HIV patients, while among non-HIV patients, an array of virulence factors is essential for E. coli to overcome host defences irrespective of antibiotic resistance.”
“Functional graded materials provided us one new concept for artificial Selleck Rabusertib articular cartilage design with graded component and graded structure. In this article, a novel functional material design was proposed

by functionalizing hydroxyapatite (HA) particles in poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogel. The goal of the present study was to fabricate a multilayer gradient HA/PVA gel biocomposites through layer-by-layer casting method combining with freeze/thaw cycle technology and establish a mechanical model to predict the compressive mechanical properties of multilayer gradient gel biocomposites. The results showed that the compressive strength of the multilayer gradient gel biocomposites increased with the rise of HA content, but it presented decreasing trend with the rise of interlayer gradient concentration of HA particles. Furthermore,

the compressive strength of multilayer gradient biocomposites would be approximately predicted by the established mechanical model. The maximum error between theoretical compressive strength predicted by the model and the 3 experimental strength is less than 7%. On the other hand, find more the compressive mechanical properties of multilayer gradient composites could be designed and controlled by the mechanical model as established in this study. (c) 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater

Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2013.”
“Analysis of the rabbit retinal connectome RC1 reveals that the division between the ON and the OFF inner plexiform layer (IPL) is not structurally absolute. ON cone bipolar cells check details make noncanonical axonal synapses onto specific targets and receive amacrine cell synapses in the nominal OFF layer, creating novel motifs, including inhibitory crossover networks. Automated transmission electron microscopic imaging, molecular tagging, tracing, and rendering of approximate to 400 bipolar cells reveals axonal ribbons in 36% of ON cone bipolar cells, throughout the OFF IPL. The targets include -aminobutyrate (GABA)-positive amacrine cells (ACs), glycine-positive amacrine cells (GACs), and ganglion cells. Most ON cone bipolar cell axonal contacts target GACs driven by OFF cone bipolar cells, forming new architectures for generating ONOFF amacrine cells. Many of these ONOFF GACs target ON cone bipolar cell axons, ON ACs, and/or ONOFF ganglion cells, representing widespread mechanisms for OFF to ON crossover inhibition.

During the last 2 years we have faced a similar dramatic revoluti

During the last 2 years we have faced a similar dramatic revolution with see more the introduction of next generation sequencing (NGS). These techniques allow sequencing of the complete human exome or whole genome with a cost reduction in the order of 10,000-100,000 fold. Consequently, the number of known cancer genome sequences exploded with more than

6,000 samples, published between 2011 and 2013. These studies have led to important and surprising discoveries both for basic cancer research and clinical applications. They relate to understanding the development of cancer as well as the heterogeneity of the disease, and how to use this information to guide the development and application of therapies. Although

it is foreseeable that the sequencing surveys of neoplasms will soon conclude, their introduction into clinical practice is just beginning.”
“Objective. To determine the effect of age and study period on coronary heart disease (CHD) risk attributable to cardiovascular risk factors\n\nMethods. Stattic A cohort of cardiovascular disease (CVD)-free randomly participants from Girona (spain) aged 35-74 years recurited in 1995 and 2000 and followed for an average of 6.9 years. A survey conducted in the same area in 2005 was also used for the analysis. Smoking, hypertension, diabetes, sedentary lifestyle. obesity, total cholesterol >= 240 mg/gl, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol >= 160 mg/dl, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol <40 mg/dl were the high risk factors considered. The composite end-point included myocardial infarction, angiona pectoris, and CHD death.\n\3 nResults. CX-6258 cost LDL cholesterol had the highest potential for CHD prevention between 35 and 74 years [42% (95% Confidence Interval : 23,58)]. The age-stratified analysis showed that the population attributable

risk (PAF) for smoking was 64% (30,80) in subjects <55 years; for those >= 55 years, the PAF for hypertension was 34% (1,61). The decrease observed between 1995 and 2005 in the population’s means LDL cholesterol level reduced that PAF in all age groups.\n\nConclusion. Overall, LDL chloresterol levels had the highest potential for CHD prevention. Periodic PAF reacalculation in different age groups may be required to adequately monitor population trends. (C) 2010 Published by Elsevier Inc.”
“The present research was carried out to study the trophic relationship between aphids and their primary parasitoids in Pothwar, Pakistan during 2009-2010 in the districts of Rawalpindi, Attock, Chakwal, and Jhelum. Ten species of aphids were recorded from 17 host plants. The aphids were parasitized by 11 species of primary parasitoids. Five quantitative aphid-parasitoid food webs were constructed describing the trophic relationships between the community of aphids and their primary parasitoids.

The detection of in-situ caves associated with the removal of the

The detection of in-situ caves associated with the removal of the concrete face during dyke repair is used to validate the statistical model. The degree of cavity erosion is classified based on the in-situ GPR detection results. The 3 outlook factors of the concrete faces are collected by a visual survey to correlate the outlook factors of the concrete dyke to the internal

cavity erosion degree by multiple linear regression analysis. The accuracy of the statistical model is verified by comparing the cavity erosion degree predicted by the statistical model and that defined by GPR.”
“Human arylacetamide deacetylase learn more (AADAC) can hydrolyze clinical drugs such as flutamide, phenacetin, and rifamycins. AADAC is a glycoprotein, but the role of glycosylation remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effect of glycosylation on AADAC enzyme activity. Immunoblot analysis of mutant AADACs that contained an asparagine (N, Asn) to glutamine (Q Gin) substitution at either residue 78 or 282 (N78Q or N282Q) showed a different migration compared with the wild-type

protein. A mutant AADAC that contained N to Q substitutions at both residue 78 and 282 (N78Q/N282Q) showed a similar migration to AADAC in human liver microsomes (HLM) treated with endoglycosidase H (Endo H), which produces deglycosylated proteins. This GSK1210151A result indicated that AADAC was glycosylated at both N78 and N282. Mutant types of AADAC with the N282Q and the N78Q/N282Q substitutions showed dramatically lower phenacetin hydrolase activity than did the wild-type protein. The treatment of wildtype AADAC-expressing

HuH-7 cells with tunicamycin, which produces unglycosylated protein, decreased AADAC enzyme activity. However, the treatment Autophagy Compound Library in vitro of the HLM with Endo H caused no decrease of AADAC activity. Thus, the oligosaccharide chain, per se, was not important for AADAC activity in the mature form. The mutant types of AADAC containing the N282Q and the N78Q/N282Q substitutions were not detected by immunoblotting analysis after non-reducing SDS-PAGE, suggesting that the glycosylation of AADAC at N282 was important for proper protein folding. Overall, this study found that the translational, but not post-translational, N-glycosylation of AADAC plays a crucial role in regulating AADAC enzyme activity. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Effects of grazing management systems (GS) on biomass production and nutritional quality of rangeland vegetation in semiarid regions are extensively studied; however, limited information is available regarding their effects on diet digestibility and feed intake of grazing livestock.

Hence, as eye size varies within a lineage, so will the compromis

Hence, as eye size varies within a lineage, so will the compromises between features that maximize acuity and those that maximize sensitivity. We examined these compromises in four species of nymphalid butterflies that varied in body mass over almost two orders of magnitude. The largest of these species

was crepuscular and so additionally may indicate the potential effect of life style on eye structure. Across these species, as body size increased, facet diameters increased Prexasertib while interommatidial angles decreased. Finally, the eye parameter was fairly constant across species except in the crepuscular species in which some notably large values were observed in the frontal visual field. Based on our measurements, large butterflies have more acute and more sensitive vision than smaller butterflies. However, full understanding of the behavioral implications of this relationship awaits information see more on the temporal resolution of their eyes because typical flight velocities also increase with body size. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Despite potential benefits of group medical visits (GMVs) for patients with diabetes, little has been published regarding 3 resident training

to conduct GMVs. Constraints of residency may limit their participation in GMVs, making transfer of skills to future practice less likely. We developed a novel curriculum that puts family medicine residents in charge of leading “mini-GMVs” with patients from their own continuity panels.\n\nMETHODS: After a series of skill-building seminars, each third-year resident, with support from one to two faculty members, conducted

a series of mini-GMVs with three to four of his/her own patients with diabetes. Faculty provided feedback during a debriefing at the end of each visit. The curriculum was evaluated using structured resident interviews www.selleckchem.com/products/erastin.html and serial faculty ratings of resident performance in the groups.\n\nRESULTS: Over 2 years, 24 residents participated, each performing an average of 5.3 visits. Patient recruitment was a significant challenge. Faculty ratings of resident skills showed significant improvements in many key skills from first to last evaluations, and 91% of residents reported feeling adequately prepared to conduct GMVs.\n\nCONCLUSIONS: With preparation for, practice, and feedback on leading mini-GMVs, family medicine residents demonstrated improved skills for conducting GMVs.”
“Genetic population structure of anadromous striped bass along the US Atlantic coast was analyzed using 14 neutral nuclear DNA microsatellites. Young-of-the-year and adult striped bass (n = 1114) were sampled from Hudson River, Delaware River, Chesapeake Bay, North Carolina, and South Carolina. Analyses indicated clear population structure with significant genetic differentiation between all regions. Global multilocus F-ST was estimated at 0.028 (P < 0.001).

01) after both

types of exercise Contrary to our hypothe

01) after both

types of exercise. Contrary to our hypothesis, the results demonstrate that ER, performed after E, amplifies the adaptive signaling response of mitochondrial biogenesis compared with single-mode endurance exercise. The mechanism may relate to a cross talk between signaling pathways mediated by mTOR. The results suggest that Topoisomerase inhibitor concurrent training may be beneficial for the adaptation of muscle oxidative capacity.”
“Apolipoprotein-E protein is an endogenous immunomodulatory agent that affects both the innate and the adaptive immune responses. Since individuals with the APOE4 gene demonstrate 432 worsened pathology and poorer outcomes in many neurological disorders, we examined isoform-specific differences in the response of microglia, the primary cellular component of the brain’s innate immune response, in detail. Our data demonstrate that microglia derived from APOE4/4 targeted replacement mice demonstrate a pro-inflammatory phenotype that includes altered cell morphology, increased NO production associated

with increased NOS2 mRNA levels, and higher pro-inflammatory cytokine production (TNF alpha, IFL-6, IL12p40) compared to microglia derived from APOE-3/3 targeted replacement mice. The effect is gene dose-dependent and increases with the number of APOE4 gene alleles. The APOE genotype-specific immune profile observed in the microglial Selleck EPZ6438 immune response is also observed in the cortex of aged APOE3/3 and APOE4/4 mice treated with lipopolysacchride (LPS) www.selleckchem.com/products/3-deazaneplanocin-a-dznep.html and in peripheral (peritoneal)

macrophages. To determine if APOE4′s action resulted from an isoform-specific difference in effective levels of the apolipoproteins, we generated mice expressing only a single allele of APOE3. Immune-stimulated macrophages from APOE3/0 mice demonstrated an increased inflammatory response compared to APOE3/3 mice, but less than in APOE4/4 mice. These data suggest that inhibition of inflammation depends upon the dose of apoE3 protein available and that apoE4 protein may alter inflammation partly by dose effects and partly by being qualitatively different than apoE3. Overall, these data emphasize the important role of apolipoprotein E and of the APOE genotype on the immune responses that are evident in most, if not all, neurological disease. (C) 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“ATP-sensitive potassium channels (K(ATP)) play a crucial role in coupling metabolic energy to the membrane potential of cells, thereby functioning as cellular “metabolic sensors.” Recent evidence has showed a connection between the amyloid neurotoxic cascade and metabolic impairment. With regard to their neuroprotection in other neuronal preparations, K(ATP) channels may mediate a potential neuroprotective role in Alzheimer’s disease (AD).

The potential influence of these polymorphisms in the development

The potential influence of these polymorphisms in the development of subclinical atherosclerosis was also analysed in a subgroup of patients

with 170 history of CV events by the assessment of two surrogate markers of atherosclerosis; brachial and carotid ultrasonography to determine endothelial function and carotid artery intima-media thickness, respectively.\n\nResults\n\nNo statistically significant differences in the allele or genotype frequencies for each individual MHCIITA gene polymorphism between RA patients who experienced CV events, or not, were found. This was also the case when each polymorphism was assessed according to results obtained from find more surrogate markers of atherosclerosis. Also, in assessing the combined influence MG-132 chemical structure of both MHCIITA gene polymorphisms in the risk of CV disease after adjustment for gender, age at time of disease diagnosis, follow-up time, traditional CV risk factors, and shared epitope status, patients with CV events only showed a marginally decreased frequency of the MHCIITA rs3087456-rs4774 G-G allele combination (p=0.08; odds ratio: 0.63 [95% confidence

interval: 0.37-1.05]).\n\nConclusion\n\nOur data do not support an influence of MHCIITA rs3087456 and rs4774 polymorphisms in the 3 increased risk of CV events of patients with RA.”
“Sesamin is a major lignan in sesame seed. We confirmed that ingestion of sesamin and alpha-tocopherol synergistically reduced the concentration of blood cholesterol in rats given a high-cholesterol

diet. To elucidate the molecular mechanism behind this effect, we analyzed the gene-expression profiles in rat liver after co-ingestion of sesamin and alpha-tocopherol. Six-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a 1% cholesterol diet (HC) or HC containing 0.2% sesamin, 1% alpha-tocopherol or sesamin + alpha-tocopherol for 10 days. Blood samples were collected on days 1, 3, 7, and 10 and livers were excised on day 10. The gene expressions of ATP-binding cassette, sub-family G (WHITE), members 5 (ABCG5) and 8 (ABCG8) were significantly increased, while the gene expression of apolipoprotein (Apo) A4 was significantly decreased. ABCG5 and ABCG8 form a functional heterodimer that acts as a cholesterol efflux transporter, which contributes to the excretion of cholesterol from the liver. ApoA4 controls the secretion of ApoB, which is a component of low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol. GW4869 solubility dmso These studies indicate that the cholesterol-lowering mechanism underlying the effects of co-ingestion of sesamin and alpha-tocopherol might be attributable to increased biliary excretion of cholesterol and reduced ApoB secretion into the bloodstream.”
“The design, synthesis, and self-assembly of a series of precisely defined, nonspherical, polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS)-based molecular Janus particles are reported. The synthesis aims to fulfill the “click” philosophy by using thiol-ene chemistry to efficiently install versatile functionalities on one of the POSS cages.

The median estimated follow-up for the cohort was 5 9 years with

The median estimated follow-up for the cohort was 5.9 years with 47% alive at the last follow-up. The median overall survival (OS) for the entire cohort was 5.2years: 4.6 years for

patients in the 2001-2005 group compared with 6.1 years for the 2006-2010 cohort (P-0.002). The improvement was primarily seen among patients over 65 years, the 6-year OS improving from 31 to 56%, P smaller than 0.001. Only 10% of patients died during the first year in the latter group, compared with 16% in the earlier cohort (P smaller than 0.01), suggesting improvement in early mortality. The improved outcomes were linked closely to the use of one or more new agents in initial therapy. The current results confirm continued survival improvement in MM and highlight the impact of initial therapy with novel agents. Most LY2606368 purchase importantly, we demonstrate that the improved survival is benefitting older patients and that early mortality in this disease has reduced considerably.”
“The incidence of delayed perforation after endoscopic resection for superficial non-ampullary duodenal epithelial www.selleckchem.com/products/OSI-906.html tumors is extremely high. Endoscopic tissue shielding with polyglycolic acid (PGA) sheets and fibrin glue is

a promising method to prevent delayed perforation after endoscopic resection in the duodenum. However, we often encounter difficulty when covering an artificial ulcer with PGA sheets after endoscopic resection. We report three cases of postoperative 4 ulcers covered by PGA sheets, fibrin glue, and clips.”

pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis is a disease with lower urinary tract symptoms, such as bladder pain and urinary frequency, which results in seriously impaired quality of life of patients. The extreme pain and urinary frequency are often difficult to treat. Although the etiology of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis is still not known, there is increasing evidence showing that afferent hyperexcitability as a result of neurogenic bladder inflammation and urothelial dysfunction is important to the pathophysiological basis of symptom development. Further investigation of the pathophysiology will lead to the effective treatment of patients with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis.”
“Major histocompatibility I-BET-762 research buy complex molecules play a major role in immunological defense against pathogens. Polymorphism of bovine leukocyte antigen (BoLA) DQA1 gene is being intensively investigated for potential association with economically important diseases of cattle. Accordingly, we investigated the association of DQA1 Exon 2 polymorphism as evidenced by the variation in the binding pockets with variability in immune response to inactivated trivalent (0, A and Asial) foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) vaccine in a closed population of crossbred cattle. Antibody titer of bigger than = 1.