3 mg/dl (p = 0 018) as significant risk factors Cases were class

3 mg/dl (p = 0.018) as significant risk factors. Cases were classified into 3 groups based on the number of risk factors, including low risk-28 with 0 or 1 risk factor, intermediate risk-26 with 2 risk factors and high risk-40 with 3 to 5 risk factors. This grouping clearly separated survival among these groups (each p <

0.001). It also confirmed the usefulness of the Memorial-Sloan Kettering Cancer Center classification system.

Conclusions: Our risk classification incorporating 5 risk factors enables accurate prediction of survival, which can be helpful to make clinical decisions in cases of renal cell carcinoma with bone metastasis.”
“Purpose: In a population based cohort we determined whether an increase in the number of lymph nodes removed is associated with improved ASP2215 disease specific survival of patients with renal cell carcinoma treated with nephrectomy.

Materials and Methods: Patients in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database with renal cell carcinoma and no evidence of distant metastases were identified. Those patients included in the study underwent radical or partial nephrectomy with lymphadenectomy. Cox regression analyses were MK-0518 datasheet performed to identify factors associated with disease specific survival including an interaction between lymph node status and the number of lymph nodes removed.

Results: Between 1988 and 2006, 9,586 patients with renal cell carcinoma

met the study inclusion criteria. Median followup was 3.5 years (range 1.4 to 6.8). Of the patients 2,382 (25%) died of renal cell carcinoma, including 1,646 (20%) with lymph node negative disease and 736 (58%) with

lymph node positive disease. There was no effect on disease specific survival with increasing the extent of lymphadenectomy in patients with negative lymph nodes (HR 1.0, 95% CI 0.9-1.1, p = 0.93). However, patients with positive lymph nodes had increased disease specific survival with extent of lymphadenectomy (HR 0.8 per 10 lymph nodes removed, 95% CI 0.7-1.0, p = 0.04). An increase of 10 lymph nodes in a patient with 1 positive lymph learn more node was associated with a 10% absolute increase in disease specific survival at 5 years (p = 0.004).

Conclusions: This study shows an association between increased lymph node yield and improved disease specific survival of patients with lymph node positive nonmetastatic renal cell carcinoma who underwent lymphadenectomy. Patients at high risk for nodal disease should be considered for regional or extended lymphadenectomy. Clinical variables to predict risk and validation of dissection templates are important areas for future research.”
“Purpose: We analyzed the prognostic impact of hydronephrosis grade on disease specific survival and evaluated whether hydronephrosis grade could preoperatively predict worse pathological outcomes in cases of upper tract urothelial carcinoma treated surgically.


Clinical EPZ004777 chemical structure data were collected through patient records and questionnaires. Results: Hypogammaglobulinemia occurred in 52.3% out of 111 patients. These patients did

not have a higher annual risk of infection than patients without hypogammaglobulinemia (79.5% vs 79.1%, p = 0.706 for all infections; 13.4% vs 11.2%, p = 0.394 for severe infection; and 1.7% vs 3.4%, p = 0.083 for sepsis). Pure subclass deficiency was uncommon and occurred in 6 patients (5.4%). The annual overall risk of infection, of severe infection, and of sepsis for these patients did not differ as compared to patients with no hypogammaglobulinemia and no subclass deficiency (70.8% vs 80.7%, p = 0.334; 11.8% vs 11.1%, p = 0.497; and 8.9% vs 2.3%, p = 0.067, respectively). Conclusions: Pure IgG subclass deficiency is rare in patients with CLL. In this heterogeneous cohort of patients, neither hypogammaglobulinemia nor pure IgG subclass Foretinib datasheet deficiency were significant risk factors for infectious complications. Measurement of serum levels of Ig may be justified in patients with recurrent severe infections, but routine analysis of IgG subclass levels in patients with CLL is probably not warranted.”
“Background: The objective of this

study was to compare the efficacy of ritonavir boosted atazanavir versus ritonavir boosted lopinavir or efavirenz, all in combination with 2 nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), over 144 weeks in antiretroviral-naive Doramapimod cell line HIV-1-infected individuals. Methods: A prospective open-label randomized controlled trial was conducted at 29 sites in Sweden and Norway between April 2004 and December 2009. Patients were randomized to receive either efavirenz 600 mg once daily (EFV), or atazanavir 300 mg and ritonavir 100 mg once daily (AZV/r), or lopinavir 400 mg and ritonavir 100 mg twice daily (LPV/r). The primary endpoints were the proportion of patients with HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/ml at 48 and 144 weeks. Results: Of 245

patients enrolled, 243 were randomized and 239 received the allocated intervention: 77 EFV, 81 AZV/r, and 81 LPV/r. Median (interquartile range) CD4 cell counts at baseline were 150 (80-200), 170 (80-220), and 150 (90-216) per microlitre, respectively. At week 48 the proportion (95% confidence interval (CI)) of patients achieving HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/ml was 86 (78-94)% in the EFV arm, 78 (69-87)% in the AZV/r arm and, 69 (59-78)% in the LPV/r arm in the intention-to-treat analysis. There was a significant difference between the EFV and LPV/r arm (p = 0.014). At week 144, the proportion (95% CI) of patients achieving HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/ml was 61 (50-72)%, 58 (47-69)%, 51 (41-63)%, respectively (p = 0.8). Patients with CD4 cell counts of <= 200/mu l or HIV-1 RNA > 100,000 copies/ml at baseline had similar response rates in all arms.

Fruit body yields and biological efficiency (BE) recorded were al

Fruit body yields and biological efficiency (BE) recorded were all highest in cultures of C. guangdongensis supplemented with sucrose and KNO(3) as carbon and nitrogen supplements, respectively. Highest fruit body yields and BE values were recorded with C : N ratio of 12 : 1. The optimal medium consisted of (g l-1) 20 center dot 0 sucrose, 4 center dot 0 soya bean powder, 5 center dot 0 beef extract and 10 center dot 0 KNO(3). Cultivation experiments using this medium confirmed its reliability; 18 center dot 35% of BE was obtained, compared with a calculated maximum BE of 18 center dot 65% based on orthogonal test data.



guangdongensis preferred sucrose and potassium nitrate as best carbon and nitrogen supplements. It produced satisfying yield learn more of fruit body with optimized medium.

Significance and Impact of the Study:

Optimized artificial cultivation conditions could promote the yield of C. guangdongensis and decreased the cost of production.”
“To obtain measurements of the normal fetal brain before 24 weeks

of gestation (GW), a deadline for medical decisions Gemcitabine concentration on fetal viability in a large number of countries.

We retrospectively reviewed 70 normal MR examinations of fetuses aged GW 17 to 23. The fronto-occipital diameter, the cerebral bi-parietal diameter, the transverse cerebellar diameter, the vermian height, and antero-posterior diameter were measured.

The median, maximum, and minimum values for each parameter were displayed for each individual GW.

The recorded data might contribute to a better assessment of fetal health by providing normal boundaries for the brain growth.”

Study of the potential of Lactococcus lactis CECT-4434 as a biosurfactants and nisin (the only bacteriocin allowed to be used in the food industry) producer for industrial applications, exploiting the possibility of recovering separately both metabolites, taking into account that BGJ398 L. lactis is an interesting micro-organism with several applications in the food industry because it is recognized as GRAS.


and Results:

The results showed the ability of this strain to produce cell-bound biosurfactants, under controlled pH, and cell-bound biosurfactants and bacteriocins, when pH was not controlled. Three extraction procedures were designed to separately recover these substances.


The strain L. lactis CECT-4434 showed to be a cell-bound biosurfactants and bacterocins producer when fermentations were carried out under uncontrolled pH. Both products can be recovered separately.

Significance and Impact of the Study:

Development of a convenient tool for the extraction of cell-bound biosurfactants and bacteriocins from the fermentation broth.”
“Hypoplastic cochleae are among the inner ear malformations more frequently encountered by radiologists; little detailed information is available on these, however.

In previous studies, recombinant BoNT production by Escherichia c

In previous studies, recombinant BoNT production by Escherichia coli and yeast Pichia pastoris has been hampered by high AT content and codon bias in the gene encoding BoNT and required a synthetic gene to resolve this intrinsic bottleneck. This paper reports the simultaneous expression of the C-terminal heavy chain domain of BoNT (rBoNT/A-HC-6h) and ‘enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) using a bi-cistronic baculovirus-insect cell expression system. The expression of EGFP facilitated the monitoring of viral infection, virus titer determination, and

isolation of the recombinant virus. Protein fusion with hexa-His-tag and one-step immobilized metal-ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) purification produced a homogenous, MI-503 concentration stable, and immunologically active 55-kDa rBoNT/A-HC-6h (about 3 mg/L) with >90% purity. Furthermore, measured levels of serum titers were 8-folds for mice vaccinated with the purified rBoNT/A-HC-6h (2 mu g) than for mice administered with botulinum toxoid after initial immunization. Challenge experiment with botulinum A toxin demonstrated the immunoprotective activity of purified rBoNT/A-HC-6h providing the mice full protection against 10(2) LD50 botulinum A toxin with a dose as low as 0.2

mu g. This study provided supportive evidence for the use of a bi-cistronic baculovirus-Sf21 insect cell expression system in the facile expression of an immunogenically active rBoNT/A-HC. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights Q VD Oph reserved.”
“Programmed cell death (PCD), a topic of abiding interest, remodels plants at the cell, tissue, and organ levels involving various developmental processes of plants. The aim of this study is to provide a morphological characterization of evidence

of PCD involvement in the laticiferous canal formation in fruit of Decaisnea fargesii. Several ultrastructural features of PCD have been observed including disintegration of vacuole and plasma membranes, cell wall degeneration, degenerated cytoplasm, abundant membrane structures and flocculent material, mitochondria and misshapen nuclei coupled with degraded plastids in vacuoles, and nuclei enveloped by rubber granule. In D. fargesii, the Selleckchem Crenolanib nuclei of the secretory epidermal cells become TUNEL-positive from the sunken stage to the late expanding stage, then DAPI-negative during the mature stage, indicating an early event of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) cleavage and a late event of complete DNA degeneration. Gel electrophoresis indicates that DNA cleavage is random and does not result in the laddering pattern indicating multiples of internucleosomal units. During the PCD of secretory epidermal cells, the rubber granules continue to be synthesized and accumulated in the secretory epidermal cells despite nuclear degradation. The PCD’s role in laticiferous canal formation suggests that PCD may play important roles in gland development of plants.

In addition, cells transfected with miR-K10a showed less inductio

In addition, cells transfected with miR-K10a showed less induction PS-341 in vivo of apoptosis by annexin V staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays. Finally, the downregulation of TWEAKR by miR-K10a in primary human endothelial cells resulted in a decrease in levels of expression of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-8 (IL-8) and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) in response to TWEAK. These results identify and validate an important cellular target

of KSHV miRNAs. Furthermore, we demonstrate that a viral miRNA protects cells from apoptosis and suppresses a proinflammatory response, which may have significant implications in the complex context of KS lesions.”
“A growing body of evidence has demonstrated a role for group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) in the reinforcing effects of cocaine.

These receptors are important given their location in limbic-related areas, and their ability to control the release of glutamate and other neurotransmitters. They are also potential targets for novel pharmacotherapies for cocaine addiction. The present study investigated the impact of chronic cocaine self-administration (9.0 mg/kg/session for 100 sessions, 900 mg/kg total intake) on the densities of group II mGluRs, as assessed with in vitro receptor autoradiography, selleck chemicals in the striatum of adult male rhesus monkeys. Binding of [(3)H]LY341495 to group II mGluRs in control animals was heterogeneous, with a medial

to lateral gradient in binding density. Significant elevations in the density of group II mGluRs following chronic cocaine self-administration SB525334 chemical structure were measured in the dorsal, central and ventral portions of the caudate nucleus (P < 0.05), compared to controls. No differences in receptor density were observed between the groups in either the putamen or nucleus accumbens. These data demonstrate that group II mGluRs in the dorsal striatum are more sensitive to the effects of chronic cocaine exposure than those in the ventral striatum. Cocaine-induced dysregulation of the glutamate system, and its consequent impact on plasticity and synaptic remodeling, will likely be an important consideration in the development of novel pharmacotherapies for cocaine addiction. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Although the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) genome might be expected to induce a DNA damage response, the ATR kinase is not activated in infected cells. We previously proposed that spatial uncoupling of ATR from its interaction partner, ATRIP, could be the basis for inactivation of the ATR kinase in infected cells; however, we now show that ATR and ATRIP are in fact both recruited to HSV-1 replication compartments and can be coimmunoprecipitated from infected-cell lysates. ATRIP and replication protein A (RPA) are recruited to the earliest detectable prereplicative sites, stage II microfoci.

Prior studies have shown significant improvement in lower urinary

Prior studies have shown significant improvement in lower urinary tract symptoms with alpha 1-adrenergic antagonists. Nonselective alpha 1-adrenergic antagonists can result in systemic vasodilatation and hypotension. We examined the effects of tamsulosin, a uroselective alpha 1A-adrenergic antagonist, on blood pressure, as well as its

safety and efficacy in the treatment of dysfunctional learn more voiding in a pediatric population.

Materials and Methods: A total of 23 children without anatomical or neurogenic abnormalities presented with lower urinary tract symptoms refractory to conservative measures. All children had increased post-void residual urine or abnormal uroflowmetry in the absence of pelvic floor activity suggestive of bladder neck dysfunction. All patients were administered tamsulosin daily. Voiding diaries, blood pressure, uroflowmetry studies and patterns along with assessment of post-void residual urine were obtained before and after beginning tamsulosin in all children.

Results: Median duration of tamsulosin therapy was 7 months, and patient followup was 20 months. The number of voiding and incontinent episodes significantly decreased during treatment compared to baseline (p <0.05). Mean blood pressures before and during tamsulosin treatment were 98/55 mm Hg and 110/61 BGJ398 solubility dmso mm Hg, respectively. Significant increases in average and maximum urinary flow rates along with reduction in post-void residual

urine were observed during tamsulosin therapy compared to baseline values (p <0.01). A 50% reduction in the number of abnormal uroflow patterns was observed with tamsulosin therapy.

Conclusions: Tamsulosin demonstrated no clinically significant effect on blood pressure, while proving to be a safe and effective treatment option for lower find more urinary tract symptoms in

a select pediatric population.”
“Purpose: The safety, benefits and usefulness of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy have been demonstrated in the pediatric population. We describe our technique, and determine the safety and feasibility of robot assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy based on our initial experience.

Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed robot assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy performed at our institution between 2002 and 2005. The technique was conducted via a transperitoneal approach with the da Vinci (R) Surgical System using standard laparoscopic procedural steps. Clinical indicators of outcomes included estimated blood loss, complications, in hospital narcotic use and length of stay.

Results: Robot assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy was completed successfully in 9 cases. Mean patient age was 7.2 years and mean followup was 6 months. Mean operative time was 275 minutes and mean estimated blood loss was 49 ml. Operative times improved significantly with experience. Overall patients had a mean hospitalization of 2.

e , Social Information-Processing Model of Children’s Adjustment<

e., Social Information-Processing Model of Children’s Adjustment

[N. R. Crick & K. A. Dodge. 1994] and the Schematic-Processing Model of Sex Role Stereotyping [C. L. Martin & C. F. Halverson, 1981]). The proposed model Suggests several individual- and group-level effects and the available evidence for each of these hypotheses is discussed. The ways selleck chemical in which the proposed model may guide future research in the field are presented.”
“This article presents a dual system model (DSM) of decision making under risk and uncertainty according to which the value of a gamble is a combination of the values assigned to it independently by the affective and deliberative systems. On the basis of research on dual process theories and empirical research in Hsee and Rottenstreich (2004) and Rottenstreich and Hsee (2001) among others, the DSM incorporates (a) individual differences in disposition to rational versus emotional decision making, (b) the affective nature of outcomes, and (c) different task construals within its framework. The model has good descriptive validity and accounts for (a) violation of nontransparent stochastic dominance, (b) fourfold pattern of risk attitudes, (c) ambiguity aversion, (d) common consequence effect, (e) common ratio effect, (f) isolation effect, and (g) coalescing and event-splitting effects. click here The DSM is also

used to make several novel predictions of conditions under which specific behavior patterns may or may not occur.”
“The stress hormones, glucocorticoids, bind to intracellular receptor proteins and act as transcription

factors affecting gene activity. These genomic effects occur over hours and even days producing long-term changes in synaptic plasticity and neural transmission. In addition to this classic genomic pathway, there is evidence that stress hormones can have immediate, non-genomic effects on brain function. Using non-invasive functional magnetic resonance imaging, awake, adrenalectomized rats FRAX597 supplier were given intravenous doses of corticosterone mimicking blood levels of hormone achieved with modest and intense stress. The dose of corticosterone mimicking high stress caused a significant increase in functional activity in the hippocampus, forebrain cortex and lateral hypothalamus within minutes of administration. This finding shows that stress hormones can have non-genomic effects on brain activity potentially affecting the immediate cognitive and behavioral response to a highly emotional experience. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Cortisol is essential for regulating all cell types in the body, including those in the brain. Most information concerning cortisol’s cerebral effects comes from work in nonhumans. This is a first effort to use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study the time course and locus of cortisol’s effects on selected brain structures in resting humans.

We examined our own institutional experience with transplantation

We examined our own institutional experience with transplantation for failed Fontan.

Methods: The records

of 155 patients transplanted for congenital heart disease at a single institution from June 1984 to September 2007 were reviewed. Of these patients, 43 had undergone a previous Fontan procedure (25 male, 15 female; median age, 14.5 years; range, 1-47; 23 classic Fontan, 13 lateral tunnel, 4 extracardiac conduit, and 3 revised to shunt). The predictors of short-and long-term survival were evaluated, and the Fontan patients were compared with all other patients with congenital heart disease (n = 129, 78 male, 51 female).

Results: The most common indications for transplantation included protein-losing enteropathy Galunisertib (PLE) (39.5%), chronic heart failure (41.8%), and acute post-Fontan failure (9.3%). The transplants performed in Fontan patients were more likely to require pulmonary artery reconstruction (85.4% vs 42.9%; P < .0001) and had longer cardiopulmonary bypass times (278 vs 179 minutes; P < .0001). The 90-day mortality rate was greater in the Fontan group (35.0% vs 20.0%; P = .055). No correlation was observed between the interval

from Fontan to transplantation and morality; however, renal failure was a strong predictor of early mortality (odds ratio, 10.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-75.7).

Conclusions: Transplantation is an acceptable treatment for CX-6258 cost patients with a failed Fontan. Clinical factors (instead of the indication for transplantation) appear to have the greatest correlation with early mortality. (J Thorac Cardiovasc 3-deazaneplanocin A concentration Surg 2012; 143: 1183-92)”
“Objective: The aim of this meta-analysis is to evaluate the effect of aerobic training and strength training as a treatment for depression in patients diagnosed with

major depressive disorder. Methods: PubMed (Medline), ISI knowledge (Institute for Scientific Information), SciELO (Scientific Electronic Library) and Scopus databases were consulted from January 1970 to September 2011. Data were collected on variables as follows: total number of patients (pre- and postintervention), age, randomized (yes or no), diagnostic criteria, assessment instruments, and the percentage of remission and treatment response. Subsequently, we collected information on time intervention, intensity, duration, frequency, method of training (aerobic training and strength training) and type of supervision. Standardized mean differences were used for pooling continuous variables as end-point scores. Binary outcomes, such as proportion of remission (no symptoms) and at least 50% reduction of initial scores (response), were pooled using relative risks. Random effects models were used that take into account the variance within and between studies. Results: Ten articles were selected and subdivided by their interventions, controlled training modality and levels of intensity.

Behavioral results revealed that, overall, approach motivation en

Behavioral results revealed that, overall, approach motivation enhanced

and avoidance motivation impaired memory performance compared to nonmotivated CH5424802 manufacturer spatial learning. This advantage was evident across several performance indices, including accuracy, learning rate, path length, and proximity to platform locations during probe trials. SCL analysis revealed three key findings. First, within subjects, arousal interacted with approach motivation, such that high arousal on a given trial was associated with performance deficits. In addition, across subjects, high arousal negated or reversed the benefits of approach motivation. Finally, low-performing, highly aroused participants showed SCL responses similar to those of avoidance-motivation participants, suggesting that for these individuals, opportunities for reward may evoke states of learning similar to those typically evoked by threats of punishment. These results provide

a novel characterization of Z-IETD-FMK mouse how approach and avoidance motivation influence declarative memory and indicate a critical and selective role for arousal in determining how reinforcement influences goal-oriented learning.”
“In recent years, the concept of regenerative medicine has gained great importance, particularly in the field of orthopaedics, in which current solutions are based mainly on the replacement of damaged tissues with devices that function only as structural replacements with limited regenerative capacity. New regenerative solutions can be obtained Selleckchem AP26113 by taking inspiration from nature, which surrounds us with a multitude of organisms endowed with extraordinary performance. In particular, bio-mineralization, which is the basis of the formation of load-bearing structures in vertebrate and invertebrate organisms, can be exploited to achieve innovative devices for the repair and reconstruction of bone and osteo-cartilaginous tissues.”
“The association of specific events with the context in which they occur is a fundamental feature of episodic memory. However, the underlying network

mechanisms generating what-where associations are poorly understood. Recently we reported that some hippocampal principal neurons develop representations of specific events occurring in particular locations ( item-position cells). Here, we investigate the emergence of item-position selectivity as rats learn new associations for reward and find that before the animal’s performance rises above chance in the task, neurons that will later become item-position cells have a strong selective bias toward one of two behavioral responses, which the animal will subsequently make to that stimulus. This response bias results in an asymmetry of neural activity on correct and error trials that could drive the emergence of particular item specificities based on a simple reward-driven synaptic plasticity mechanism.

METHODS: A retrospective case note analysis was undertaken in con

METHODS: A retrospective case note analysis was undertaken in consecutive patients undergoing brain biopsy at The Walton Centre for Neurology and Neurosurgery during a 15-year period. The diagnostic yield, prebiopsy diagnostic category, biopsy technique (open versus stereotactic), complication rates, and impact on clinical management were assessed. Biopsies were grouped into one of five categories:

diagnostic, suggestive, nonspecific, normal, or nondiagnostic.

RESULTS: Thirty-nine patients underwent biopsy. The diagnostic yield (combined diagnostic and suggestive) of targeted serial stereotactic biopsy was 64% (seven of 11 patients); in the open brain biopsy group, the diagnostic yield was 46% (13 of 28 patients). The prebiopsy diagnosis was confirmed in 100% (three of three patients) stereotactic biopsy patients and 75% (nine of 12 patients) https://www.selleckchem.com/products/px-478-2hcl.html of open biopsy patients. Two patients (7%) in the open biopsy group had short-term complications. The clinical impact

was similar in both groups: nine of 28 (32%) open biopsy patients and four of 11 (36%) stereotactic biopsy patients.

CONCLUSION: Despite the low clinical impact, diagnostic brain biopsy should be considered in patients with nonneoplastic undiagnosed neurological disorders. Patients with neuroimaging abnormalities should preferentially undergo targeted biopsy.”
“The biological characteristics of BoHV-4 make it a good candidate as a gene Idasanutlin order delivery vector for vaccination purposes. These characteristics include little or no pathogenicity, unlikely oncogenicity, the ability to accommodate large amounts of foreign genetic material, the ability to infect several cell types from different animal species, such as sheep, goats, swine, cats, dogs, rabbits, mink, horses, turkeys, ferrets, monkeys,

hamsters, rats, mice, and chickens. In this report, the feasibility to use BoHV-4 based vector in chicken was investigated. Although BoHV-4 Autophagy inhibitor was able to replicate, leading to a cytopathic effect in a chicken cell line and infect the chorion allantoic membrane of embryonated eggs, however it was not pathogenic even when a large dose of virus was injected into the chicken. An immune response could be produced against heterologous antigen delivered by a recombinant BoHV-4. These data suggest the feasibility of using BoHV-4 based vector for vaccination purposes in chickens. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of early optic canal unroofing on visual function in patients with meningiomas of the tuberculum sellae and planum sphenoidale.

METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of 20 consecutive patients with tuberculum sellae meningiomas and two patients with planum sphenoidale meningiomas who were admitted to our institution from 1999 to 2007.