\n\nConclusions: The opening of mitochondrial adenosine 5′-triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels are disrupted in DM-iPSC-CMs in 11 mM and 25 mM glucose and in N-iPSC-CMs in 25 mM glucose. Cardiomyocytes derived from healthy donors
and patients with a specific disease, such as diabetes in this study, open possibilities in studying genotype-and phenotype-related pathologies in a human-relevant model.”
“Wildlife populations represent an important reservoir for emerging pathogens and trans-boundary livestock diseases. However, detailed information relating to the occurrence of 5-Fluoracil molecular weight endemic pathogens such as those of the order Chlamydiales in such populations is lacking. During the hunting season of 2008, 863 samples (including blood, conjunctival swabs, internal organs and faeces) were collected in the Eastern Swiss Alps from 99 free-living red deer (Cervus elaphus) and 64 free-living roe deer (Capreolus selleck capreolus) and tested using ELISA, PCR and immunohistochemistry for members of the family Chlamydiaceae and the genus Parachlamydia.\n\nParachlamydia spp. were detected in the conjunctival swabs, faeces and internal organs of both species of deer (2.4% positive, with a further 29.5% inconclusive). The very low occurrence of Chlamydiaceae (2.5%) was in line
with serological data (0.7% seroprevalence for Chlamydia abortus). Further investigations are required to elucidate the zoonotic potential, pathogenicity,
and distribution of Parachlamydia spp. in wild ruminants. Crown Copyright (C) 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background-Hundreds of nonsynonymous single nucleotide variants (nsSNVs) have been identified in the 2 most common long-QT syndrome-susceptibility genes (KCNQ1 and KCNH2). Unfortunately, an approximate to 3% background rate of rare KCNQ1 and KCNH2 nsSNVs amongst healthy individuals complicates the ability to distinguish rare pathogenic mutations from similarly rare yet presumably innocuous variants.\n\nMethods GSK2245840 and Results-In this study, 4 tools [(1) conservation across species, (2) Grantham values, (3) sorting intolerant from tolerant, and (4) polymorphism phenotyping] were used to predict pathogenic or benign status for nsSNVs identified across 388 clinically definite long-QT syndrome cases and 1344 ostensibly healthy controls. From these data, estimated predictive values were determined for each tool independently, in concert with previously published protein topology-derived estimated predictive values, and synergistically when >= 3 tools were in agreement. Overall, all 4 tools displayed a statistically significant ability to distinguish between case-derived and control-derived nsSNVs in KCNQ1, whereas each tool, except Grantham values, displayed a similar ability to differentiate KCNH2 nsSNVs.
Our report highlights that assessment of PFO in patient with carcinoid syndrome is of importance because it allows to detect patient at high risk of CHD progression learn more and percutaneous
PFO closure may thus be proposed. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Obesity is associated with significantly increased cardiovascular (CV) risk and mortality. Several molecular mechanisms underlying this association have been implied, among which the intestinal barrier has gained a growing interest. In experimental models of obesity, significant alterations in the intestinal barrier lead to increased intestinal permeability, favoring translocation of microbiome-derived lipopolysaccharide to the bloodstream. This has been shown to result in a two-to threefold increase in its serum concentrations, a threshold named ‘metabolic endotoxemia’ (ME). ME may trigger toll-like receptor 4-mediated inflammatory activation, eliciting a chronic low-grade proinflammatory
and pro-oxidative stress status, which may result in high CV risk and target-organ damage. In this review, we discuss the potential molecular implications of ME on several CV risk factors, such as obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and oxidative stress, as well as its potential impact on the development of CV target-organ disease.”
“Transtympanic promontory stimulation test (TPST) has been suggested to be a useful tool in predicting postoperative outcomes in patients
at risk of poor auditory neuron functioning, especially after a long auditory deprivation. find more However, only sparse data are available on this topic. This study aimed at showing correlations between the auditory nerve dynamic range, evaluated by TPST, the electrical dynamic range of the cochlear implant and speech perception outcome. We evaluated 65 patients with postlingual hearing loss and no residual hearing, implanted with a Nucleus CI24 cochlear implant device for at least 2 years and with a minimum of 17 active Crenolanib manufacturer electrodes. Using the TPST, we measured the threshold for auditory perception (T-level) and the maximum acceptable level of stimulation (M-level) at stimulation frequencies of 50, 100 and 200 Hz. General linear regression was performed to correlate 1/speech perception, evaluated using the PBK test 1 year after surgery, and 2/cochlear implant electrical dynamic range, with the age at time of implantation, the duration of auditory deprivation, the etiology of the deafness, the duration of cochlear implant use and auditory nerve dynamic range. Postoperative speech perception outcome correlated with etiology, duration of auditory deprivation and implant use, and TPST at 100 and 200 Hz. The dynamic range of the cochlear implant map correlated with duration of auditory deprivation, speech perception outcome at 6 months and TPST at 100 and 200 Hz. TPST test can be used to predict functional outcome after cochlear implant surgery in difficult cases.
(C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
The aim of the study was to present and analyse our experience in laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA).\n\nMaterials and methods: Descriptive and retrospective study including LA performed over 8 years, between 2000 and 2008 in our hospital.\n\nResults: A total of 43 LA were performed to 41 patients using a transperitoneal lateral approach. Indications for adrenalectomy included hyperaldosteronism (19), non-functioning adenoma (8), phaeochromocytoma (6), Cushing’s syndrome (6), metastasis (3) and adrenal primary tumour (1). Median postoperative hospital stay was 3 days and the median size of the masses was 30 mm (range: 4-155 mm) Complications occurred in 3 patients (2 respiratory infections, and 1 intraoperative bleeding). There was no mortality. Only one case needed conversion to open adrenalectomy; MK-2206 ic50 no patients required reintervention.\n\nConclusion: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is a safe and
effective method in the treatment of adrenal masses and it can be performed with minimal risk and morbidity. (C) 2009 AEC. Published SBE-β-CD nmr by Elsevier Espana, S.L. All rights reserved.”
“Often in forensic cases, the profile of at least one of the contributors to a DNA evidence sample is unknown and a database search is needed to discover possible perpetrators. In this article we consider two types of search strategies to extract suspects from a database using methods based on probability arguments. The performance of the proposed match scores is demonstrated by carrying out a study of each match score relative to the level SNX-5422 price of allele drop-out in the crime sample, simulating low-template DNA. The efficiency was measured by random man simulation and we compared the performance using the SGM Plus kit and the ESX 17 kit for the Norwegian population, demonstrating
that the latter has greatly enhanced power to discover perpetrators of crime in large national DNA databases. The code for the database extraction strategies will be prepared for release in the R-package forensim. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“We developed a practicable, non-contact, autonomic activation monitoring system using microwave radars without imposing any stress on monitored individuals. Recently, the rapid increase in the aging population has raised concerns in developed countries. Thus, hospitals and care facilities will need to perform long-term health monitoring of elderly patients. The system allows monitoring of geriatric autonomic dysfunctions caused by chronic diseases, such as diabetes or myocardial infarction (MI), while measuring vital signs in non-contact way. The system measures heart rate variability (HRV) of elderly people in bed using dual, 24-GHz, compact microwave radars attached beneath the bed mattress.
Whether this finding can be generalized for other Archean and Proterozoic orogenic gold deposits worldwide remains open. However, a significant CO2 contribution by mantle degassing can be ruled out for every deposit studied. Devolatilization of greenstone belt rocks is the most likely source for CO2 in some Archean Au deposits in Zimbabwe, whereas CO2 in Proterozoic vein-type Au deposits in the West African Selleckchem MAPK inhibitor Craton is most likely derived from C-org-bearing metasedimentary
rocks. The delta C-13(CO2) values of high-density CO2-rich, water-poor inclusions hosted in quartz pebbles from the world-class Au-bearing conglomerate deposits at Tarkwa (Ghana) differ considerably from check details the delta C-13(CO2)
values of similar high-density CO2-rich inclusions in vein quartz from the giant Ashanti deposit (Ghana) and disprove the idea of derivation of the Tarkwaian quartz (and gold?) from an older equivalent to the Ashanti vein-type gold deposit.”
“The HECT-containing E3 ubiquitin ligase Itch mediates the degradation of several proteins, including p63 and p73, involved in cell specification and fate. Itch contains four WW domains, which are essential for recognition on the target substrate, which contains a short proline-rich sequence. Several signaling complexes containing these domains have been associated with human diseases such as muscular dystrophy, Alzheimer’s or Huntington’s diseases. To gain further insight into the structural determinants of the Itch-WW2 domain, we investigated its interaction with p63. We assigned, by 3D heteronuclear NMR experiments, the backbone and side chains of the uniformly C-13-N-15-labeled Itch-WW2. In vitro interaction of Itch-WW2 domain with p63 was studied using its interactive p63 peptide, pep63. Pep63 is an 18-mer peptide corresponding to the region from 534-551 residue of p63, encompassing the PPxY motif that interacts with the Itch-WW domains, and we identified the residues involved in this molecular
recognition. Moreover, here, a strategy of stabilization of the conformation of the PPxY peptide GDC-0068 purchase has been adopted, increasing the WW-ligand binding. We demonstrated that cyclization of pep63 leads to an increase of both the biological stability of the peptide and of the WW-ligand complex. Stable metal-binding complexes of the pep63 have been also obtained, and localized oxidative damage on Itch-WW2 domain has been induced, demonstrating the possibility of use of metal-pep63 complexes as models for the design of metal drugs to inhibit the Itch-WW-p63 recognition in vivo. Thus, our data suggest a novel strategy to study and inhibit the recognition mechanism of Itch E3-ligase.
Patient characteristics and exercise levels were considered in a binary logistic regression
against reporting bra discomfort to ascertain significant relationships (p smaller than 0.05) and predictive value (odds ratio). Pearson’s chi-square statistics was used to determine significant relationships between reporting a side effect and exercise bra discomfort. Eight out of nine this website physical side effects were significantly related to reporting exercise bra discomfort. Reporting exercise bra discomfort was significantly related to not achieving a minimal recommended level of exercise. This is the first study in the scientific literature that systematically links the reporting of exercise bra discomfort to not achieving recommended levels of exercise. This effect of bra discomfort on exercise was found after controlling for age, surgery type and current treatment among a large cohort of women treated for breast cancer. Furthermore, results from this study suggest that physical side IPI-549 effects, as a result of surgery and treatment associated with breast cancer, are linked to experiencing bra discomfort during exercise.”
“The prevalence of celiac disease (CD) varies greatly, but several reports have shown that CD is increasing in frequency in different geographic areas. The increase in prevalence can be partially attributed
to the improvement in diagnostic techniques and disease awareness; however the equally well documented rise in incidence in the last 30-40 years cannot be so easily explained. The new epidemiology of CD is now characterized by an increase of new cases in the historical CD areas (northern Europe and the United States) and more interestingly in a spread of the disease in new regions (Asian countries). find more A significant change in diet habits,
particularly in gluten consumption as well as in infant feeding patterns are probably the main factors that can account for these new trends in CD epidemiology.”
“Study Objective: To compare length of hospital stay for minilaparotomy vs laparoscopic hysterectomy. Design: Retrospective cohort study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). Setting: Kaiser Permanente Northern California, a large integrated health care delivery system. Patients: Women bigger than 18 years of age undergoing laparoscopic or minilaparotomy hysterectomy because of benign indications from June 2009 through January 2010. Intervention: Hysterectomy via minilaparotomy or laparoscopy. Measurements and Main Results: Medical records were reviewed for outcomes of interest including length of stay and surgical and demographic data. Parametric and non-parametric analyses were used to compare the 2 groups. The study was powered to detect a difference of 8 hours in length of stay.
Expression of active matrix metalloproteinase-7 was associated with larger tumor size (P = 0.022) and was significantly higher
in buccal squamous cell carcinoma with adjacent skin or bone invasion (P = 0.036). In conclusion, active matrix metalloproteinase-7 expression was associated with more aggressive buccal squamous Etomoxir in vivo cell carcinomas.”
“Recent studies have demonstrated the potential of DNAzymes for therapy of various diseases via mRNA target-specific cleavage. One such target, the basic region-leucine zipper protein c-Jun, has been targeted and efficacy seen in such pathologies as cancer, ocular neovascularisation, arterial thickening, acute inflammation, and rheumatoid arthritis. This review discusses these cases in turn, and presents some new data on the applicability of a c-jun DNAzyme against a panel of cancer cells. Importantly, downregulation of c-jun is noted to cause apoptotic death of cancer cells. These studies collectively demonstrate the potential of this DNAzyme as a lead GSK923295 purchase candidate for DNAzyme therapeutics.”
“BACKGROUND: This study examined the association of hematocrit (Hct) levels measured upon intensive care unit (ICU) admission and red blood cell transfusions to long-term (1-year or 180-day) mortality for
both surgical and medical patients.\n\nSTUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Administrative and laboratory data were collected retrospectively on 2393 consecutive medical and surgical male patients admitted to the ICU between 2003 and 2009. We stratified patients based on their median Hct level during the first 24 hours of their ICU stay (Hct < 25.0%, 25% <= Hct < 30%, 30% <= Hct < 39%, and 39.0% and higher). An extended Cox regression analysis was conducted to identify the time period after ICU admission (0 to < 180, 180 to 365 days) when low Hct (< 25.0) was most strongly associated with mortality. The unadjusted and adjusted relationship between
admission Hct level, receipt of a transfusion, and 180-day mortality was assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression modeling.\n\nRESULTS: Patients with an Hct level of less than 25% who were not transfused had the worst Selleck DMXAA mortality risk overall (hazard ratio [HR], 6.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.05-12.85; p < 0.001) during the 6 months after ICU admission than patients with a Hct level of 39.0% or more who were not transfused. Within the subgroup of patients with a Hct level of less than 25% only, receipt of a transfusion was associated with a significant reduction in the risk of mortality (HR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.19-0.85; p = 0.017).\n\nCONCLUSION: Anemia of a Hct level of less than 25% upon admission to the ICU, in the absence of a transfusion, is associated with long-term mortality. Our study suggests that there may be Hct levels below which the transfusion risk-to-benefit imbalance reverses.
Triacylglycerol hydrolase (TGH), a lipase residing in the ER, is involved in the mobilization of TG stored in LDs for the secretion of very-low-density lipoproteins. In this study, we investigated TGH-mediated changes in cytosolic find more LD dynamics. We have found that TGH deficiency resulted in decreased size and increased number of LDs in hepatocytes. Using fluorescent fatty acid analogues to trace LD formation, we observed that TGH deficiency did not affect the formation of nascent LDs on the ER. However, the rate of lipid transfer into preformed LDs was significantly slower in the absence of TGH. Absence of TGH expression resulted in
increased levels of membrane diacylglycerol and augmented phospholipid synthesis, which may be responsible for the delayed lipid transfer. Therefore, altered maturation (growth) rather than nascent formation (de novo synthesis) may be responsible for the observed morphological changes of LDs in TGH-deficient hepatocytes.”
“A retrospective review of patients who underwent percutaneous cryoablations of renal tumors (>= 5 cm) with/without previous selective intraarterial embolization from March 2003 to January 2008 was performed to compare periprocedural complications. Of 129 treated tumors, 11 (8.5%) were larger than 5 cm. One patient was lost to follow-up. Of the remaining
10 follow-up patients, four (40%) underwent selective intraarterial tumor embolization before cryoablation. The mean hematoma volume in patients who underwent embolization before cryoablation (n = 4) was 18.3 mL +/- 25.9, whereas that in patients
who underwent cryoablation MK-0518 supplier alone (n = 6) was 357.3 mL 460.9 (P < .01). Only one patient required transfusion and prolonged hospitalization. Combination therapy can provide a decrease in postprocedural cryoablation-related hemorrhage.”
“Novel computational methods for understanding relationships between ligands and all possible biological targets have emerged in recent years. Proteins are connected to each other based on the similarity of their ligands or based on the similarity of their binding sites. The assumption is that compounds sharing AL3818 manufacturer chemical similarity should share targets and that targets with a similar binding site should also share ligands. A large number of computational techniques have been developed to assess ligand and binding site similarity, which can be used to mike quantitative predictions of the most probable biological target of a given compound. This review covers the recent advances in new computational methods for relating biological targets based on the similarity of their binding sites. Binding site comparisons are used for the prediction of their most likely ligands, their possible cross reactivity and selectivity. These comparisons can also be used to infer the function of novel uncharacterized proteins.
Two selective P2X7 receptor antagonists, A-740003 and A-438079, potently blocked P2X7 receptor activation across mammalian species. Several reported P2X1 receptor antagonists [e.g. MRS 2159 (4-[(4-formyl-5-hydroxy-6-methyl-3-[(phosphonooxy)methyl}-2-pyridinyl)azo]-benzoic acid), PPNDS and NF279] blocked P2X7
receptors. NF279 fully blocked human P2X7 receptors, but only partially blocked BALB/c P2X7 receptors and was inactive at C57BL/6 P2X7 receptors.\n\nConclusions and implications:\n\nThese data provide new insights into P2X7 receptor antagonist pharmacology across mammalian species. P2X7 receptor pharmacology in a widely used knockout background mouse strain (C57BL/6) was similar to wild-type mouse P2X7 AZD8186 supplier receptors. Several structurally novel, selective and competitive P2X7 receptor antagonists show less species differences compared with earlier non-selective antagonists.”
“IMA901 is the first therapeutic vaccine for renal cell cancer (RCC) consisting of multiple tumor-associated peptides (TUMAPs) confirmed to be naturally presented in human cancer tissue. We treated a total of 96 human leukocyte
antigen A (HLA-A)*02(+) subjects with advanced RCC with IMA901 in two consecutive studies. In the phase 1 study, the T cell responses of the patients to multiple TUMAPs were associated with better disease control and lower numbers of prevaccine forkhead box P3 (FOXP3)(+) regulatory T (T-reg) cells. The randomized phase 2 trial showed that a single dose see more of cyclophosphamide reduced the number of Sapitinib price T-reg cells and confirmed that immune responses to multiple TUMAPs were associated with longer overall survival. Furthermore, among six predefined populations of myeloid-derived suppressor cells, two were prognostic for overall survival, and among over 300 serum biomarkers, we identified apolipoprotein A-I (APOA1) and chemokine (C-C motif)
ligand 17 (CCL17) as being predictive for both immune response to IMA901 and overall survival. A randomized phase 3 study to determine the clinical benefit of treatment with IMA901 is ongoing.”
“Purpose: Prostate gland segmentation is a critical step in prostate radiotherapy planning, where dose plans are typically formulated on CT. Pretreatment MRI is now beginning to be acquired at several medical centers. Delineation of the prostate on MRI is acknowledged as being significantly simpler to perform, compared to delineation on CT. In this work, the authors present a novel framework for building a linked statistical shape model (LSSM), a statistical shape model (SSM) that links the shape variation of a structure of interest (SOI) across multiple imaging modalities. This framework is particularly relevant in scenarios where accurate boundary delineations of the SOI on one of the modalities may not be readily available, or difficult to obtain, for training a SSM.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed of all computerized medical records of hypertensive patients in Health Area 6 of Madrid (Spain). Of 63 167 hypertensive patients, we selected 48 744 with prescription of antihypertensive medication; of these, we selected those who met the American Heart Association criteria for resistant hypertension. Results: A total of 6292 patients had resistant hypertension, representing 9.9% of all hypertensive patients and 12.9% of those treated. A total of 5.5% were smaller than 50 years (8.5% men and 3.2% women) and 24.7% were bigger than 80 years (15.8% men and 31.4% women) (P smaller than .001). In patients smaller than
50 years, resistant hypertension was associated with male sex (odds ratio female/male = 0.006; AS1842856 95% confidence interval, 0.000-0.042; P smaller than .001), systolic blood pressure, obesity, stroke, and chronic kidney disease (P smaller than .001). In those bigger than 80 years, resistant hypertension was associated with female sex (odds ratio female/male = 1.27;
95% ABT-263 ic50 confidence interval, 1.08-1,10; P = .004), systolic blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, obesity, chronic kidney disease, coronary heart disease, and atrial fibrillation (P smaller than .001). More than 50% of patients bigger than 80 years with resistant hypertension had cardiovascular disease. Conclusions: One in 4 patients with resistant hypertension is bigger than 80 years. Resistant hypertension is associated with cardiovascular disease, age smaller than 50 years in men and age bigger than 80 years in women. There is a high Bafilomycin A1 proportion of cardiovascular disease in elderly patients with resistant hypertension. (C) 2013 Sociedad Espanola de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier Espana, S. L. All rights reserved.”
“This study was designed to examine the mechanism of heart rate (HR)
responses elicited by the stimulation of hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Experiments were done in urethane-anesthetized, barodenervated, adult, male Wistar rats. Chemical stimulation of the PVN by unilateral microinjections of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) elicited increases in HR which were attenuated by bilateral vagotomy. PVN-induced tachycardia was also attenuated by the blockade of the spinal ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGLURs) which was accomplished by intrathecal injections at T9-T10 or direct application at T1-T4 of iGLUR antagonists. The blockade of spinal iGLURs combined with bilateral vagotomy completely blocked PVN-induced tachycardia. Blockade of GABA receptors in the medial nucleus tractus solitarius (mNTS) also attenuated the PVN-induced tachycardia. Complete blockade of PVN-induced tachycardia was also observed after the blockade of iGLURs in both the spinal cord and mNTS. Combination of the blockade of mNTS GABA receptors and spinal iGLURs also abolished PVN-induced tachycardia. PVN-induced tachycardia was not altered.
A total of 19 462 polymorphic microsatellites were discovered, and dinucleotide repeats were the most active, with over 26% of loci found to harbor allelic variations. In all, 7 451 loci with high potential for marker development were identified. Better knowledge of the microsatellites in the oyster genome will provide information for the future design of a wide range of molecular markers and contribute to further advancements in the field of oyster genetics, particularly for molecular-based selection and breeding.”
“Context: In the electrically selleck chemicals llc induced cramp model, the tibial nerve is stimulated at an initial frequency of 4 Hz with increases in 2-Hz increments until the flexor
hallucis brevis cramps. learn more The frequency at which cramping occurs (ie, threshold frequency [TF]) can vary considerably. A potential limitation is that multiple subthreshold stimulations before TF might induce
fatigue, which is operationally defined as a decrease in maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) force, thereby biasing TF.\n\nObjective: To determine if TF is similar when initially stimulated at 4 Hz or 14 Hz and if MVIC force is different among stimulation frequencies or over time (precramp, 1 minute postcramp, and 5 minutes postcramp).\n\nDesign: Crossover study.\n\nSetting: Laboratory.\n\nPatients or Other Participants: Twenty participants (13 males: age = 20.6 +/- 2.9 years, height = 184.4 +/- 5.7 cm, mass = 76.3 +/- 7.1 kg; 7 females: age = 20.4 +/- 3.5 years, height = 166.6 +/- 6.0 cm, mass = 62.4 +/- 10.0 kg) who were prone to cramps.\n\nIntervention(s): Participants BMN 673 concentration performed 20 practice MVICs. After a 5-minute rest, three 2-second MVICs were recorded and averaged for the precramp measurement. Participants were stimulated at either 4 Hz or 14 Hz, and the frequency
was increased in 2-Hz increments from each initial frequency until cramp. The MVIC force was reevaluated at 1 minute and 5 minutes postcramp.\n\nMain Outcome Measure(s): The TF and MVIC force.\n\nResults: Initial stimulation frequency did not affect TF (4 Hz = 16.2 +/- 3.8 Hz, 14 Hz = 17.1 +/- 5.0 Hz; t(19)=1.2, P = .24). Two participants had inaccurate TFs when initially stimulated at 14 Hz; they cramped at 10 and 12 Hz in the 4-Hz condition. The MVIC force did not differ between initial frequencies (F-1,F-19 = 0.9, P = .36) but did differ over time (F-2,F-38 = 5.1, P = .01). Force was lower at 1 minute postcramp (25.1 +/- 10.1 N) than at precramp (28.7 +/- 7.8 N; P < .05) but returned to baseline at 5 minutes postcramp (26.7 +/- 8.9 N; P > .05).\n\nConclusions: The preferred initial stimulation frequency might be 4 Hz because it did not alter or overestimate TF. The MVIC force was lower at 1 minute postcramp, suggesting the induced cramp rather than the varying electrical frequencies affected force. A 1- to 5-minute rest should be provided postcramp induction if multiple cramps are induced.