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“Introduction Climate change causes shifts in geographical distributions of species (Parmesan and Yohe 2003; Root et
al. 2003). Such shifts are considered to be the result of (meta)population extinction at the equatorial Copanlisib order range boundary, and poleward colonization in regions where climatic conditions EPZ5676 mouse have newly become suitable (Opdam and Wascher 2004). Parmesan and Yohe (2003) reported shifts in the direction of the predicted climate change for 81% of 460 species of diverse taxa. Warren et al. (2001) expected butterfly species approaching their northern climatic range margins in Britain to respond positively to climate warming over the past decennia. Yet, only a quarter of these species increased their area of geographical distribution, supposedly because positive responses to climate warming were outweighed by negative effects of habitat fragmentation, especially for less mobile specialists (Travis 2003). Other empirical studies (Anderson et al. 2009; Devictor et al. 2008; Schwartz et al. 2001) confirm
for other species groups that a response to climate change may be hampered by habitat fragmentation. Habitat availability and spatial cohesion of habitat patterns play a crucial role in the persistence of species under global temperature rise: below a critical threshold the expansion of ranges will be blocked and species can rapidly become extinct (Opdam and Wascher 2004; Travis 2003). Increased frequency selleck inhibitor of extreme weather events will moreover cause see more overall range contraction, especially with relatively low spatial cohesion (Opdam and Wascher 2004). However, these statements on detrimental effects of climate change in fragmented habitat assume that habitat availability, habitat use and interpatch movement do not vary under the expected climate change regime. Thomas et al. (2001) show that such assumptions may not be realistic, as they found a significant broadening of the range of habitats used by Silver-spotted skipper, Hesperia comma L., spreading into north-facing hill slope habitats that were previously climatically not suitable. We suggest that for butterflies, interpatch movement can be facilitated if dispersal propensity will be enhanced by climate change.