Alcohol-induced HUVEC barrier dysfunction was attenuated by inhib

Alcohol-induced HUVEC barrier dysfunction was attenuated by inhibition of NOS or addition of the eNOS cofactor, tetrahydrobiopterin.\n\nConclusions: These results indicate that PPAR gamma activation reduced expression of eNOS, Nox1, Nox4, the production of reactive species, and barrier dysfunction caused by

chronic alcohol ingestion and suggest that PPAR gamma represents a novel therapeutic target for strategies designed to reduce the risk of lung injury in patients with a history of chronic alcohol ingestion.”
“The human IL-1 family MLN4924 chemical structure contains eleven genes encoded at three separate loci. Nine, including IL-36 receptor antagonist (IL-36RN), also known as IL-1F5, are present at a single locus on chromosome 2, whereas IL-18 and IL-33 lie on chromosomes 11 and 9 respectively. There are currently only three known orthologues in the chicken – IL-1 beta, IL-18 and IL-1RN – which are encoded on chromosomes 22, 24 and unplaced, respectively.\n\nA novel chicken IL-1 family sequence representing IL-36RN (IL-1F5) was initially identified from an expressed sequence tag (EST) library by its similarity to both chicken IL-1 RN and chicken IL-1 beta. Following isolation of the cDNA from the liver of an uninfected

VX-680 cost bird, a number of unique sequence features were identified. The predicted protein has a longer NH2-terminus than the

human protein; however, as in mammals, this region contains neither a prodomain nor a signal peptide. A putative nuclear export sequence is also apparent, yet a similar motif is absent in mammalian IL-36RN. Although chIL-36RN exhibits low homology with its mammalian orthologues, it encodes a predicted beta-trefoil structure whose beta-strands are conserved Citarinostat molecular weight with those of the mouse sequence.\n\nUnlike in mammals, chIL-36RN expression was constitutive in all tissues and cell subsets examined. In response to viral infection, expression was significantly downregulated in a line of birds which are susceptible to the virus.\n\nChicken IL-36RN, like chIL-1RN, is not encoded at the chIL-1 beta locus, further emphasising the genomic fragmentation of the large IL-1 gene cluster found in mammals. This suggests differential evolution of this cytokine family since the divergence of birds and mammals from a common ancestor, and underlines the difficulty of determining the full repertoire of chIL-1 family members. Crown Copyright (C) 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Current knowledge suggests that adipose tissue is an active organ, participating in intestinal and mesenteric disease. Additionally, adipose tissue surrounds the lymph nodes and has special properties, acting as a paracrine regulator of adjacent lymphoid tissues.

Recommendations: The USPSTF recommends screening for osteopor

\n\nRecommendations: The USPSTF recommends screening for osteoporosis see more in women aged 65 years or older and in younger women whose fracture risk is equal to or greater than that of a 65-year-old white woman who has no additional risk factors. (Grade B recommendation)\n\nThe USPSTF

concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for osteoporosis in men. (I statement)”
“The present study aimed to investigate the role of Zn alone and in the presence of ascorbic acid (AA) and folic acid (FA) in albumin glycation. Glycation was performed by incubations of bovine serum albumin with glucose at 37 degrees C along with Zn, AA or FA separately and Zn + AA or Zn + FA for 150d. Glycation-mediated modifications were monitored as fluorescence of advanced glycation endproducts, carbonyl formation, beta aggregation (thioflavin T and Congo red dyes), albumin-bound Zn, thiol groups and glycated aggregate’s toxicity in HepG2 cells. Zn inhibited glycation and beta aggregation, probably click here due to observed higher protein-bound Zn. It also protected protein thiols and increased cell survival. AA and FA enhanced glycation, which was lowered in Zn-co-incubated samples. FA increased albumin-bound Zn and showed maximum cell survival. Although these results warrant further

in vivo investigation, the present data help in the understanding of the interplay of Zn with micronutrients in albumin glycation.”
“Improved solutions for the porosity and specific surface of uniform porous media with the attached film are provided for four regular packing arrangements. These solutions overcome the limitations of previous solutions, which did not cover the full range of film thicknesses to complete occlusion of the pore space in the porous media. The void spaces within the clogged porous media are analyzed geometrically.

The exact solutions Nutlin 3 for the volume and surface area of overlapping shapes and isolated void spaces are formulated in terms of integrals. New polynomial solutions are proposed to replace the numerical integration in the complete solutions to allow easy implementation in numerical models. With the new solutions, both the porosity and specific surface gradually decrease from the initial values to zero when the film increases to complete pore occlusion. These solutions have application in numerical modeling of the growth of organic mass and deposition of inorganic mass in leachate collection systems and other similar systems in which there maybe growth of a semipermeable film on the surface of the particles in a relatively uniformly graded granular porous medium. DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)EE.1943-7870.0000480. (C) 2012 American Society of Civil Engineers.

An increase of brain activity is known to be accompanied by a ris

An increase of brain activity is known to be accompanied by a rise of blood flow in activated regions, while a decreased activity results in a decreased blood flow. This demonstrates the close correlation between the brain blood supply and its activity. see more Such a correlation had not been noted in the age-dependent decrease of cerebral blood flow, suggesting the existence of special age-related mechanisms that develop with age to maintain brain metabolism.\n\nThe biomechanical properties are of special significance as predicted in the early 20th century. Only recently were they validated by the simultaneous recording of Transcranial Dopplerogram and Rheoencephalogram with in-depth

analysis focused on single cardiac cycles. Functioning of the intracranial blood and cerebrospinal fluid dynamics was integrated with a special physiological test “Prognosis-2″ to measure brain cognitive function. Correlation was demonstrated with the circulatory-metabolic state of brain activity, especially in people with changing cognitive function. The data supports a conceptual model of adequate circulatory-metabolic supply of brain activity, showing the functional unity, which follows from integration of the mentioned systems.”
“Manganese doped Li2B4O7 nano crystallites were

prepared by chemical method and characterized by XRD, FTIR, UV and fluorescence spectra. FESEM reveals that the particles are coagulated and the particle size GW786034 in vivo is in the range of 50-107 nm. Bands appear at 682-769 cm(-1) corresponds to the bending of B-O linkage in borate network. Nonradiative energy transfer process is observed from fluorescence spectrum. UV-Vis studies show the samples are completely transparent in the visible region and having absorption peaks (234 and 276 nm) in UV regime. The measured second harmonic generation values are 0.9 times KDP. The nonlinear optical

parameters such as nonlinear refractive index, n(2) (10(-8) cm(2)/W), nonlinear absorption, beta (10(-2) cm/W) and nonlinear optical 4-Hydroxytamoxifen inhibitor susceptibility, chi((3)) (10(-5) esu) are estimated using a Nd:YAG laser (532 nm, 50 mW). (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Elevated plasma homocysteine (hcy) levels, also known as hyperhomocysteinemia (hhcy), have been associated with cognitive impairment and neurodegenerative disorders. Hhcy has been attributed to deficiency of B vitamins which can adversely affect the brain and result in memory loss and poor attention power. Monitoring hcy levels and the use of vitamin supplementation to treat hhcy may therefore prove advantageous for the prevention and management of cognitive impairment. With this in consideration, we measured plasma hey, folate and vitamin B12 levels in 639 subjects from different age groups in two sub-regions of India. Cognitive function was also measured using attention span and immediate and delayed memory recall tests.

These results suggest that adolescents of both sexes may be less

These results suggest that adolescents of both sexes may be less sensitive to the extrapyramidal motor effects of haloperidol. Translational implications of the clozapine results are less clear; however, results suggest that developmental differences in neurochemical systems affected by clozapine that are also related to motor behavior may play a role. These results also emphasize the importance of age and sex as determinants of the pharmacological effects of these antipsychotics. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: To describe the prevalence of neural tube defects (NTDs) in Selleckchem MAPK inhibitor Victoria, and to evaluate

women’s knowledge and awareness of the importance of folate after the introduction of voluntary food fortification.\n\nDesign and setting: Descriptive study, set in Victoria, Australia, based on routinely collected data from the Victorian Birth Defects Register (VBDR) for 1998-2006, and responses by women aged 18-50 years to five questions relating to folate on the 2005 and 2006 Victorian Population Health Surveys (2314 and LY294002 supplier 2488 women, respectively).\n\nMain outcome measures: Prevalence of NTDs, and extent of women’s knowledge of the importance of folate in NTD prevention, comparing the period before and since

voluntary food fortification and a folate awareness campaign.\n\nResults: The total prevalence of pregnancies affected by NTDs declined from approximately 17 to 14 per 10000 births from 1997 to 1999 (coinciding with the period when voluntary food fortification was introduced, and a 1-year folate awareness campaign was held). It has since remained static. Over the 9-year study period, the termination of pregnancy rate was 79%, resulting in three NTD-affected babies per 10000 livebirths. Compared with women aged 30-34 years (the reference group), those aged 20-24 years had the greatest likelihood of having a baby with an NTD (adjusted odds ratio, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.33-2.18; P < 0.001). Women aged 18-24 years had the lowest rate of folate supplement use (15.9% in 2006), while women aged 30-34 years had the highest rate (30.3% in 2006).\n\nConclusions:

There has been no further reduction in prevalence of NTDs in Victoria since 1999, and this prevalence remains well above that achievable through adequate folate intake. click here Accurate knowledge of folate consumption, population-based NTD prevalence data and folate awareness data are essential in monitoring the effectiveness of the mandatory fortification program to be implemented in Australia in the next 2 years.”
“A patient with a pancreatic pseudocyst rupture into the portal vein with a resultant noninfectious systemic inflammatory response syndrome and subsequent portal vein thrombosis diagnosed by computed tomography and ultrasonography is reported. A review of the existing English literature on this rare complication is also provided.

Although this type of surgery has received little attention in he

Although this type of surgery has received little attention in healthcare policy, these data reveal that it is both common and uncommonly morbid. Variation in hospital performance provides an opportunity

to identify quality improvement practices that could be disseminated among hospitals.”
“Photoluminescent diamino-substituted dinaphthopentalenes were synthesized successfully by the treatment of in situ prepared dinaphthocyclooctadiyne with lithium amide. This reaction involves a series of transformations including the nucleophilic addition of the lithium amide to a triple bond of the cyclooctadiyne moiety, transannulation, protonation of the resulting pentalene anion, and the nucleophilic substitution of the pentalene core with the lithium amide. In this procedure, a novel double

amination step plays a key role. selleck kinase inhibitor When 17-AAG supplier the diamino-substituted dinaphthopentalenes were irradiated with UV light in toluene, fluorescence was observed at around 580 nm (Phi(F) smaller than 0.03).”
“Nucleoside-derived anticancer agents must be transported across the plasma membrane as a preliminary step to their conversion into active drugs. Hence, modulation of a specific nucleoside transporter may affect bioavailability and contribute significantly to sensitizing tumor cells to these anticancer agents. We have generated and functionally characterized a new recombinant adenovirus (Ad-hENT1) that has allowed us to overexpress the equilibrative nucleoside transporter hENT1 and to analyze its effects in human pancreatic tumor cells. Overexpression of hENT1 is associated

with changes in cell cycle profile, in a variable manner depending on the particular cell Prexasertib price type, thus suggesting a metabolic link between hENT1-mediated transport processes and the enzymatic machinery responsible for intracellular nucleoside metabolism. When assayed in vivo in a human pancreatic adenocarcinoma xenograft, intratumoral Ad-hENT1 injection improved the therapeutic response to gemcitabine. In summary, hENT1 overexpression is associated with alterations in nucleoside enzymatic machinery and cell cycle progression in cultured cells and enhances gemcitabine action in vivo. (C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“The role of CD4(+) helper T cells in modulating the acquired immune response to herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) remains ill defined; in particular, it is unclear whether CD4(+) T cells are needed for the generation of the protective HSV-1-specific CD8(+)-T-cell response. This study examined the contribution of CD4(+) T cells in the generation of the primary CD8(+)-T-cell responses following acute infection with HSV-1. The results demonstrate that the CD8(+)-T-cell response generated in the draining lymph nodes of CD4(+)-T-cell-depleted C57BL/6 mice and B6-MHC-II-/- mice is quantitatively and qualitatively distinct from the CD8(+) T cells generated in normal C57BL/6 mice.

Median age was 59 years Fourty-five patients were ECOG 0-1 The

Median age was 59 years. Fourty-five patients were ECOG 0-1. The grade 3-4 toxicity rate was 94%; fatigue (47%) and nausea (40%) were frequent. One patient died after a bowel perforation; a second died of a CVA. The median PFS was 4.9 months; median survival was 11.9 months; 1 year survival was 42%. Locally advanced patients lived 12.8 months; metastatic patients lived 10.2 months. Patients developing grade 3 hypertension were more likely to have a radiologic response (P = .012); survival among the top and bottom quintiles of hypertension

was 14.7 and 6.2 months, respectively. Survival LY293646 correlated with baseline CA 19-9 (P = .004) and radiologic response. The overall response rate was 36%; 34% demonstrated stable disease.\n\nThe GEMOX/bevacizumab

regimen demonstrated an excellent median overall survival but did not meet our objective of a 14 month median survival. Toxicity was significant. We do not recommend further evaluation of this regimen.”
“Attempted suicide may be a different phenomenon in adolescents than in adults. To our knowledge, direct comparisons between these two populations are very scarce. The aim of this study is to analyze the differences between adolescents and adults in methods of attempted suicide, accompanying certainty of death, and intentionality. All cases admitted to one adult (n=173) and one adolescent (n = 104) inpatient unit who attempted suicide in the period from January 2003 through October 2005 were included in a prospective, buy Compound C common, national click here register, with data on methods, circumstances, and intentionality. The methodology

followed that of the WHO/Euro Multicenter Study on Parasuicide. A stratified analysis was performed using the Mantel-Haenszel procedure in order to control for the effects of gender and diagnosis. Adolescents used significantly more over-the-counter medicines. Adults were significantly more certain of the possible fatal outcome of their attempt and had a significantly more severe intention when harming themselves. Individuals appear to use the methods that are available to them to attempt suicide. Adolescents may display more impulsive and less lethal directed behavior than adults or, alternatively, they are more frequently admitted for less severe attempts. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: We investigated the dosimetric impact of the interplay effect during RapidArc stereotactic body radiation therapy for lung tumors using flattening filter-free (FFF) beams with different dose rates.\n\nMethods and Materials: Seven tumors with motion <= 20 mm, treated with 10-MV FFF RapidArc, were analyzed. A programmable phantom with sinusoidal longitudinal motion (30-mm diameter “tumor” insert; period = 5 s; individualized amplitude from planning 4-dimensional computed tomography) was used for dynamic dose measurements. Measurements were made with GafChromic EBT III films.

(C) 2013 sociedad Espanola de Neurocirugia Published by Elsevier

(C) 2013 sociedad Espanola de Neurocirugia. Published by Elsevier Espana, S.L. All rights reserved.”
“Background: To determine if a standardized, non-xenogenic, reduced manipulation cultivation and surgical transplantation of limbal stem cell grafts is a safe and effective treatment option for patients with total and partial limbal stem cell deficiency. Methods: In vitro cellular outgrowth and phenotype of the limbal epithelial cell

and composite grafts were validated using a new protocol. Patients received either autologous (n = 15) or allogenic (n = 3) explants cultured using a standardized protocol free from xenogenic products. The resulting grafts were transplanted using a reduced manipulation surgical buy SB202190 technique. Results: The majority of cells ( bigger than 50%) displayed a progenitor phenotype typified by positive immunofluorescence for Delta Np63, CK14 and ABCG2 and low immunofluorescence for CK3/12 and desmoglein 3 proteins. The surgical protocol was designed to minimize manipulation and the graft itself was secured without sutures. The transplant recipients were followed for a mean of 24 months. Twelve of the 18 transplant recipients

were graded as anatomically successful (67%), based on the defined success parameters. There was a significant reduction in corneal neovascularization, which was accompanied by an improvement in pain though not photophobia or central corneal opacity post transplant. The transplantation protocol showed no measureable effect on visual acuity. Conclusion: We conclude that this standardized culture system and surgical approach is safe and effective in reducing corneal neovascularization. The technique is free from animal contaminants and maintains a large ZD1839 proportion of progenitor cells. Although this technique did not improve visual function, restoring a functional epithelial cell layer and reducing corneal neovascularization

provides an improved platform for a penetrating keratoplasty to ultimately improve visual function.”
“CD137 ligand (4-1BB ligand, TNFSF9, CD137L) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor family whose binding to its receptor, CD137 (4-1BB, TNFRSF9), mediates costimulatory and prosurvival signals necessary for T-cell activation and regulation of humoral immune responses. Recent studies have shown that anti-CD137 immunotherapy has promise as a treatment for solid tumors and lymphoid malignancies in preclinical models. Here, we define the tissue expression profile of CD137L, which has not been previously explored. We characterized the expression of CD137L in normal and neoplastic human hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic tissue and found that CD137L is preferentially expressed in B cells of the primary follicles, mantle zones of the secondary follicles, germinal centers, and in normal endothelial cells.

All the materials have revealed two-way shape memory capabilities

All the materials have revealed two-way shape memory capabilities. The effect arises from an elongation process that takes place when the material is cooled under an applied load below the crystallization temperature, and that is completely reversed when heated selleck chemicals again above melting temperature, in a manner that strongly

depends on the applied load and on the material crosslink density. Two-dimensional XRD analysis, carried out on elongated specimens, shows that the elongation on cooling is accompanied by a change in the crystallinity orientation along the direction of stretch. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Decreased carotid arterial compliance has been reported in obese subjects and animals. Carotid baroreceptors are located at the bifurcation of the common carotid artery, and respond to distension of the arterial wall, Selleck CA4P suggesting that higher pressure is required to obtain the same distension in obese subjects and animals.

A hyperosmotic NaCl solution induces circulatory volume expansion and arterial pressure (AP) increase, which reflexively augment renal excretion. Thus, we hypothesized that sodium regulation via the baroreflex might be impaired in response to chronic hyperosmotic NaCl infusion in rats fed a high-fat diet. To examine this hypothesis, we used rats fed a high-fat (Fat) or normal (NFD) diet, and measured mean AP, water and sodium balance, and renal function in response to chronic infusion of hyperosmotic NaCl solution via a venous catheter. Furthermore, we examined arterial baroreflex characteristics with static open-loop analysis and distensibility of the common carotid artery. Significant positive water and sodium balance was observed on the 1st day of 9% NaCl infusion; however, this disappeared by the 2nd day in Fat rats. Mean AP was significantly higher during 9% NaCl infusion in Fat rats compared with NFD rats. In the open-loop analysis of carotid sinus baroreflex,

a rightward shift of the neural arc was observed in Fat rats compared with NFD rats. Furthermore, distensibility of the common carotid artery was significantly reduced in Fat rats. These results indicate that a reduced baroreceptor distensibility-induced Kinase Inhibitor Library in vitro rightward shift of the neural arc might contribute to impairment of sodium regulation in Fat rats.”
“Genital human papillomaviruses (HPV) represent the most common sexually transmitted agents and are classified into low or high risk by their propensity to cause genital warts or cervical cancer, respectively. Topical microbicides against HPV may be a useful adjunct to the newly licensed HPV vaccine. A main objective in the development of novel microbicides is to block HPV entry into epithelial cells through cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans.

Furthermore, the subjects were also weighed and their height meas

Furthermore, the subjects were also weighed and their height measured. Their body mass index was see more then calculated using the weight (kg)/height (m(2)) formula. Results: In the 5 years following the transplant, the patients experienced a significant increase in the levels of their biochemical markers as well as in their BMI. Consequently, a greater number suffered from dyslipidaemia,

diabetes and hypertension. Conclusions: Kidney transplants can often trigger hyperlipidaemia, as reflected in higher levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoproteins and high-density lipoproteins. The results of our study also showed that despite statin therapy, the patients had higher triglyceride levels, which made them more vulnerable to diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and graft rejection.”
“Purpose Corneal collagen crosslinking (CXL) is a relatively new technique to reduce the progression of keratoconus. The technique can be performed with or without Selleckchem LY2606368 complete debridement of the corneal epithelium. We describe a novel intermediate technique involving mechanical disruption of the epithelium, and evaluate its safety and efficacy. Methods The case notes of 128 eyes with progressive keratoconus or iatrogenic

corneal ectasia who had undergone CXL using the epithelial disruption technique were retrospectively reviewed. Thin corneas were treated with hypotonic riboflavin. All others were treated with an isotonic solution. Note was made of preoperative and postoperative parameters, including uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA), refraction, endothelial cell count, and corneal tomography. Occurrence of procedure-related complications was recorded. Statistical analyses were performed using the paired sample t-test and Wilcoxon

signed-rank test, PI3K inhibitor with a level of P smaller than 0.05 being accepted as statistically significant. Results At 12 months, 41.8% of patients treated with isotonic riboflavin had improved UCVA and 29.7% had improved BSCVA. Only 13.4% lost lines of UCVA and 14.9% lost BSCVA. Of the patients treated with hypotonic riboflavin, at 12 months, 75% demonstrated stability of BSCVA and 25% had stable Kmax. In addition, 25% showed improved visual acuity at 12 months, and 58.3% showed regression of their Kmax. Our rate of short-term complications was comparable to studies using complete epithelial removal. Conclusions CXL with epithelial disruption is a safe and effective treatment for keratoconus or iatrogenic corneal ectasia, and may be better tolerated by patients than the epithelium-off technique.”
“The antimicrobial era is threatened by high levels of antibiotic resistance, the limited number and disparate availability of effective antibiotics against diverse bacterial species, and reduced involvement by the pharmaceutical industry in the development of new anti-infectives.

The underlying unrooted tree is probably correct,

but the

The underlying unrooted tree is probably correct,

but the placement of the root just reflects a well-known error from the acceleration in the rate of evolution among some myomorph rodents.”
“Background: The ‘timed up and go’ test (TUG) is a simple, quick and widely used clinical performance-based measure of lower extremity function, mobility and fall risk. We speculated that its properties may be different from other performance-based tests and assessed whether cognitive function may contribute to the differences among these tests in KPT-8602 a cohort of healthy older adults. Objective: To evaluate psychometric properties of the TUG in healthy older adults in comparison to the Berg balance test (BBT) and the Dynamic 3-deazaneplanocin A clinical trial Gait Index (DGI). Methods: The TUG, DGI and BBT were assessed in 265 healthy older adults (76.4 +/- 4.3 years; 58.3% women) who participated in a 3-year prospective study. The Mini-Mental State Examination, digit span and verbal fluency measured cognitive function. The one-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test evaluated deviations from a normal distribution and Pearson’s correlation coefficients quantified

associations. Results: The mean scores of the BBT, DGI and TUG were: 54.0 +/- 2.4, 22.8 +/- 1.5, 9.5 +/- 1.7 s, respectively. The BBT and the DGI were not normally distributed (p < 0.001), but the TUG was (p = 0.713). The TUG times were mildly associated (p < 0.01) with digit span and verbal fluency and were related to future falls, while the BBT and the DGI were not. Conclusions: The TUG appears to be an appropriate GSK1838705A ic50 tool for clinical assessment of functional mobility even in healthy older adults. It does not suffer from ceiling effect limitations, is normally distributed and is apparently related to executive function. The BBT and the DGI do not share these beneficial properties. Perhaps the transferring and turning components of the TUG help to convert this relatively simple motor task into a more complex measure

that also depends on cognitive resources. Copyright (C) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Interactions between MHC class II (MHC II)-positive APCs and CD4(+) T cells are central to adaptive immune responses. Using an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed B lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL) as MHC II-positive APCs and CD4(+) T-cell clones specific for two endogenously expressed EBV antigens, we found that shRNA knockdown of the tetraspanin protein CD63 in LCL cells consistently led to increased CD4(+) T-cell recognition. This effect was not due to enhanced antigen processing nor to changes in MHC II expression since CD63 knockdown did not influence the amount or dimerization of MHC II in LCL cells. We therefore investigated the possible involvement of exosomes, small MHC II- and tetraspanin-abundant vesicles which are secreted by LCL cells and which we found could themselves activate the CD4(+) T-cell clones in an MHC II-dependent manner.