(C) 2013 sociedad Espanola de Neurocirugia Published by Elsevier

(C) 2013 sociedad Espanola de Neurocirugia. Published by Elsevier Espana, S.L. All www.selleckchem.com/products/gsk1838705a.html rights reserved.”
“Background: To determine if a standardized, non-xenogenic, reduced manipulation cultivation and surgical transplantation of limbal stem cell grafts is a safe and effective treatment option for patients with total and partial limbal stem cell deficiency. Methods: In vitro cellular outgrowth and phenotype of the limbal epithelial cell

and composite grafts were validated using a new protocol. Patients received either autologous (n = 15) or allogenic (n = 3) explants cultured using a standardized protocol free from xenogenic products. The resulting grafts were transplanted using a reduced manipulation surgical buy SB202190 technique. Results: The majority of cells ( bigger than 50%) displayed a progenitor phenotype typified by positive immunofluorescence for Delta Np63, CK14 and ABCG2 and low immunofluorescence for CK3/12 and desmoglein 3 proteins. The surgical protocol was designed to minimize manipulation and the graft itself was secured without sutures. The transplant recipients were followed for a mean of 24 months. Twelve of the 18 transplant recipients

were graded as anatomically successful (67%), based on the defined success parameters. There was a significant reduction in corneal neovascularization, which was accompanied by an improvement in pain though not photophobia or central corneal opacity post transplant. The transplantation protocol showed no measureable effect on visual acuity. Conclusion: We conclude that this standardized culture system and surgical approach is safe and effective in reducing corneal neovascularization. The technique is free from animal contaminants and maintains a large ZD1839 proportion of progenitor cells. Although this technique did not improve visual function, restoring a functional epithelial cell layer and reducing corneal neovascularization

provides an improved platform for a penetrating keratoplasty to ultimately improve visual function.”
“CD137 ligand (4-1BB ligand, TNFSF9, CD137L) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor family whose binding to its receptor, CD137 (4-1BB, TNFRSF9), mediates costimulatory and prosurvival signals necessary for T-cell activation and regulation of humoral immune responses. Recent studies have shown that anti-CD137 immunotherapy has promise as a treatment for solid tumors and lymphoid malignancies in preclinical models. Here, we define the tissue expression profile of CD137L, which has not been previously explored. We characterized the expression of CD137L in normal and neoplastic human hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic tissue and found that CD137L is preferentially expressed in B cells of the primary follicles, mantle zones of the secondary follicles, germinal centers, and in normal endothelial cells.

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