A readily available rapid diagnostic test would be valuable for public health and medical management of foodborne, infant, wound, or bioterrorist botulism outbreaks. Quick, accurate diagnosis would enable the limited supply of equine or human antitoxin to be directed to affected
patients, thereby allowing exposed but unaffected Compound C manufacturer individuals to be reassured and spared unnecessary treatment with an equine serum product. A high-throughput assay would also be beneficial to the food industry, where the use of large quantities of mice is impractical. Several studies have Panobinostat in vitro described PCR-based assays that detect the various serotypes of BoNT genes [20–26]. With the advent of quantitative PCR (qPCR), further studies have reported assays that detect the toxin types (A, B, E and F) generally implicated in human illness and food contamination [27–31]. However, comprehensive sequence analysis shows a high level of genetic variability within the toxin types that enables differentiation of toxin types into subtypes [32, 33]. Thus, existing assays may not reliably detect all known subtype variants within each botulinum toxin type. For these reasons we have developed a novel two-step PCR-based assay that can detect both BoNT and other gene sequences located within the toxin gene complex. It is known that C. botulinum DNA
is readily attracted to botulinum neurotoxins, necessitating the use of various treatments for the removal of nucleic acids during toxin purification [34–37]. These DNA sequences may be found even in highly purified protein Selleckchem GW4869 preparations of the toxin and are therefore a reliable surrogate for the presence of BoNT, enabling rapid detection without using mice. As antitoxin doses are administered based on the serotype of toxin and clinical symptoms and not on the amount of active toxin present in the sample, the assay described here will provide the critical information needed for clinicians to treat affected
patients. The first step in this procedure is a universal electrophoresis-based PCR that detects the presence of the C. botulinum nontoxin-nonhemagglutinin (NTNH) gene, a highly conserved toxin complex gene that is found in all C. botulinum toxin types and subtypes that has been found in all BoNT-producing C. botulinum gene sequences examined to date [32, 38]. Thus, samples Ketotifen that contain BoNT can be identified irrespective of serotype, thereby providing comprehensive but not type-specific detection. A similar independent assay to detect NTNH has recently been reported by Rafael and Andreadis . The second step of the assay uses qPCR to determine quantitatively the specific BoNT toxin type by using seven different degenerate primer/probe pairs, one for each of the seven A-G toxin serotypes. These assays successfully detected toxin genes from 22 of the 26 known toxin subtypes. Results Universal detection of the C. botulinum toxin complex gene NTNH Figure 1A shows the C.