Therefore, it is not surprising that, at least for the present, an earlier start of long-term selleck screening library dialysis than currently applied is not encouraged in Taiwan. Whether this may change will have to await the completion of a multicentre patient-directed randomized study currently underway in Taiwan to compare clinical outcome with respect to renal function at initiation. Despite the absence of high level evidence, a number of expert groups have developed clinical practice guidelines about when to initiate dialysis. These groups include CARI,5 Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI) and Canadian Society of Nephrology and European Best Practice
Guidelines. Their recommendations are similar. CARI recommends that dialysis should be initiated before the development of uraemic symptoms and complications including malnutrition; that quality of life should be taken into consideration; and that in an otherwise well patient dialysis preparation should commence at a GFR of 10 mL/min and dialysis be initiated by a GFR of 5 mL/min (Table 1). In addition, individual countries have developed regulations
or guidelines about dialysis initiation for local application. For example, in Taiwan the Bureau of National Health Policy has set the following regulations for initiating dialysis: (i) absolute, CCr less than 5 mL/min or serum creatinine more than 10 mg/dL
(884 µmol/L); and (ii) relative, CCr less than 15 mL/min Palbociclib price or serum creatinine more than 6 mg/dL (530 µmol/L), plus the presence of fluid overload or other uraemic emergency. According to the Taiwan dialysis registry data (during 2001 and 2004), 90% of the incident ESKD patients started long-term L-NAME HCl dialysis according to absolute indications, while 10% followed relative indications. Following a study endorsed by its Ministry of Health and Welfare,13 Japan introduced recommendations for initiation of haemodialysis almost 20 years ago (Table 2). The recommendations were based on scores for uraemic symptoms, level of renal function, activity and age; with a score exceeding 60, initiation of haemodialysis was recommended. These recommendations appeared to change clinical practice because the percentage of patients commencing haemodialysis with a score less than 60 rose from 3% in 1994 to 22% in 2006, and mean serum creatinine level at initiation fell from 10.6 ± 3.7 to 8.4 ± 3.6 mg/dL (937 ± 327 to 743 ± 318 µmol/L, respectively).14 These observations are confounded by changes in mean age (57 vs 66 years) and incidence of diabetes as the cause of ESKD (29% vs 43%) at initiation in 1994 versus 2006. It is likely that the recommendations about when to initiate haemodialysis will be modified.