Therefore, it is not surprising that, at least for the present, a

Therefore, it is not surprising that, at least for the present, an earlier start of long-term selleck screening library dialysis than currently applied is not encouraged in Taiwan. Whether this may change will have to await the completion of a multicentre patient-directed randomized study currently underway in Taiwan to compare clinical outcome with respect to renal function at initiation. Despite the absence of high level evidence, a number of expert groups have developed clinical practice guidelines about when to initiate dialysis. These groups include CARI,5 Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI) and Canadian Society of Nephrology and European Best Practice

Guidelines. Their recommendations are similar. CARI recommends that dialysis should be initiated before the development of uraemic symptoms and complications including malnutrition; that quality of life should be taken into consideration; and that in an otherwise well patient dialysis preparation should commence at a GFR of 10 mL/min and dialysis be initiated by a GFR of 5 mL/min (Table 1). In addition, individual countries have developed regulations

or guidelines about dialysis initiation for local application. For example, in Taiwan the Bureau of National Health Policy has set the following regulations for initiating dialysis: (i) absolute, CCr less than 5 mL/min or serum creatinine more than 10 mg/dL

(884 µmol/L); and (ii) relative, CCr less than 15 mL/min Palbociclib price or serum creatinine more than 6 mg/dL (530 µmol/L), plus the presence of fluid overload or other uraemic emergency. According to the Taiwan dialysis registry data (during 2001 and 2004), 90% of the incident ESKD patients started long-term L-NAME HCl dialysis according to absolute indications, while 10% followed relative indications. Following a study endorsed by its Ministry of Health and Welfare,13 Japan introduced recommendations for initiation of haemodialysis almost 20 years ago (Table 2). The recommendations were based on scores for uraemic symptoms, level of renal function, activity and age; with a score exceeding 60, initiation of haemodialysis was recommended. These recommendations appeared to change clinical practice because the percentage of patients commencing haemodialysis with a score less than 60 rose from 3% in 1994 to 22% in 2006, and mean serum creatinine level at initiation fell from 10.6 ± 3.7 to 8.4 ± 3.6 mg/dL (937 ± 327 to 743 ± 318 µmol/L, respectively).14 These observations are confounded by changes in mean age (57 vs 66 years) and incidence of diabetes as the cause of ESKD (29% vs 43%) at initiation in 1994 versus 2006. It is likely that the recommendations about when to initiate haemodialysis will be modified.

In particular, sirolimus dramatically suppressed oedema, reduced

In particular, sirolimus dramatically suppressed oedema, reduced leucocyte infiltration and maintained mucosal integrity in TNBS-treated mice. These results apparently provide evidence of the therapeutic effect of sirolimus on experimental colitis and indicate that inhibition of the activity of mTOR is able to decrease the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and disease parameters, thereby turning off the immune response learn more of TNBS-induced experimental colitis. In conclusion, the present study shows that pre-treatment with sirolimus, the inhibitor of

mTOR, alleviated the perpetuation of TNBS-induced colitis. This amelioration was paralleled by promoting differentiation of Treg cells and inhibiting the generation of Th17 cells. Sirolimus treatment resulted in a significant histological improvement, protecting against mucosal ulcerations. This study suggests that sirolimus-based pharmaceutical strategies may offer a promising alternative to our current approaches of managing IBD. The project was supported by Guangdong Natural Science Foundation

(Grant S2012010009409) and the Scientific Research Foundation for the Returned Overseas Chinese Scholars, State Education Ministry SAR245409 cell line [No (2011)1139]. The authors declare no conflict of interest. “
“We show that the T-cell immunoglobalin mucin, Tim-1, initially reported to be expressed on CD4+ T cells, is constitutively expressed on dendritic cells (DCs) and that its expression further increases after DC maturation. Tim-1 signaling into DCs upregulates costimulatory molecule expression and proinflammatory cytokine production, thereby promoting effector T-cell responses, while inhibiting Foxp3+ Treg responses. By contrast, Tim-1 signaling in T cells only regulates Th2 responses. Using a high-avidity/agonistic anti-Tim-1 antibody as a co-adjuvant enhances the immunogenic function of DCs, decreases the suppressive function of Tregs, and substantially increases proinflammatory Th17 responses in Quinapyramine vivo. The treatment with high- but not low-avidity anti-Tim-1 not only worsens experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

(EAE) in susceptible mice but also breaks tolerance and induces EAE in a genetically resistant strain of mice. These findings indicate that Tim-1 has an important role in regulating DC function and thus shifts the balance between effector and regulatory T cells towards an enhanced immune response. By understanding the mechanisms by which Tim-1 regulates DC and T-cell responses, we may clarify the potential utility of Tim-1 as a target of therapy against autoimmunity, cancer, and infectious diseases. The T-cell immunoglobulin mucin (Tim) family of proteins are expressed on various immune cells and regulate immune responses 1–3. Tim-1 was first identified as a hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 1 (HAVCR1) 4, 5 and later as a kidney injury molecule, KIM-1 6, 7.

Islamic law permits the withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment,

Islamic law permits the withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment, including dialysis if it is in the patient’s best interests. In this instance withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment is seen as allowing death to take its natural course. Suicide and euthanasia are against Islamic law. Hinduism is a broad range of beliefs with rich traditions. A common belief is that death leads to reincarnation, life in heaven or absorption into Brahman (the ultimate reality). Suffering, including an illness such as ESKD may be seen as punishment for wrongs committed in the past.

A good death is an important part of spiritual life. Broadly this is defined as dying in old age, having resolved conflicts, said goodbye and having placed all one’s affairs in order. A bad death is untimely, violent and unprepared. Some Hindus will fast as they approach death as purification of body and spirit. There may be tension between open disclosure to INCB024360 in vitro allow a person to prepare for death and the desire of the family to protect the loved one. Analgesia

and sedation may be declined in order to maintain a clear mind. Buddhism preaches the inevitability of death. ‘Buddhists tend to be psychologically prepared to accept impending death with calmness and dignity’.[1] The withdrawal of treatment, including dialysis, is acceptable. In Buddhism there is an emphasis on mindfulness and mental clarity. To that end, Buddhists may decline analgesia or sedation with the belief that dying with an unclouded mind can lead to a better rebirth. Individuals are encouraged to follow their own conscience BYL719 Branched chain aminotransferase in decision-making as there is no central authority competent to pronounce on matters of ethics or doctrine. For an excellent series on the

views of the major religions on end of life care and death see: Lancet: Viewpoint series: End of life issues for different religions. Lancet 2005; 366: 682–6, 774–9, 862–5, 952–5, 1045–8, 1132–5, 1235–7. Brian Siva and Frank Brennan A core competency of Nephrology should be the capacity to diagnose dying. Withdrawal of dialysis is ethically and legally valid. It is a fundamental tenet of medical practice that a careful balance should be always made between the benefits and burdens of any treatment.[1] Far from being static, this is a dynamic process. That is especially so when the condition of the patient is rapidly and irreversibly changing and where a treatment that was once considered absolutely beneficial is now of no or marginal benefit only. In the context of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) this process of dynamic decision-making reflecting the dynamic of the clinical circumstances of the patient is extremely important. Multiple issues may unfold – related or unrelated to the underlying ESKD and its management – that may alter the clinical circumstances necessitating a review of all treatment.

Some examples of these are, but are not limited to, T-bet, GATA-3

Some examples of these are, but are not limited to, T-bet, GATA-3, interferon regulatory factor family and Foxp3.90,91 These transcription factors play an important role in the differentiation of T cells, but

are beyond the scope of this review. So far, we have reviewed the transcription factors that are activated downstream find more of TCR signalling and how components of the immunological synapse activate them. T cells can differentiate to perform various effector functions, be tolerized or be deleted. All these processes require engagement of TCRs by peptide–MHC complexes and happen over days. Tolerance induction can occur when TCR signals are delivered in the absence of co-stimulatory signals, whereas deletion can occur when high-affinity self-peptide KU-60019 molecular weight interactions occur in the periphery.21 Effector T-cell differentiation occurs as a result of co-operation between TCR, co-stimulatory and cytokine signals.92,93 Differentiation is also accompanied by epigenetic changes occurring at specific promoters, particularly

in the promoters of cytokine genes.9,94 Antigen dose and affinity, however, also play an important role in determining the differentiation state of effector T cells in the absence of polarizing cytokines. O’Garra and colleagues demonstrated that increasing antigen dose led to more IFN-γ production by T cells whereas very low or very high antigen doses caused cells to produce

IL-4.95 Another study, from Bottomly and colleagues, showed that a high dose led to IFN-γ-producing cells whereas stimulation with a lower antigen Oxymatrine dose caused cells to produce IL-4.96 A requirement for co-stimulation through CD28 was demonstrated in this system for Th2 responses by way of weak TCR signals.97 Although peptide dose and affinity do show an impact on Th1 versus Th2 choices, Croft and colleagues demonstrated that the time of differentiation also played an important role in determining whether cells produced IL-4 or IFN-γ.98 Bottomly and colleagues also demonstrated that antigen dose affected the balance of NFATp versus NFATc DNA-binding activity, with lower potency ligands favouring higher levels of nuclear NFATc and lower levels of NFATp conducive for IL-4 transcription.99 More recently, Paul and colleagues have explored the mechanism by which high and low doses of peptide induce Th1 versus Th2 responses. They report that T cells stimulated by low peptide concentrations result in IL-2-dependent signal transducer and activator or transcription 5 (STAT5) phosphorylation, TCR-induced IL-4-independent early GATA-3 expression and IL-4 production. Stimulation with a higher concentration of peptide caused, by way of the ERK pathway, abrogation of GATA-3 expression and IL-2-dependent STAT5 phosphorylation and IL-4 production.

Measurements were carried out intra-operatively after clamping an

Measurements were carried out intra-operatively after clamping and declamping the perforator vessels. In the post-operative period measurements click here were carried out every hour for the first 48 hours and from 3rd to 7th for every 2 hours. These dates were compared to findings of clinical assessment. Several intra-operative measurements, during the clamping and declamping the different perforator vessels, revealed a high correlation for all parameters: Flow (r = 0.89, P < 0. 05), Velo (r = 0.92, P < 0. 05), SO2 (r =0.84, P <0. 05), and rHB (r =0.83 P < 0.05). Vessel occlusion

was detected in five cases, of which three were due to arterial thrombosis and two further Selumetinib solubility dmso cases were due to venous occlusion. Of the five cases, one flap loss caused by venous occlusion was noted. The O2C-device seems to be a reliable, objective, and non-invasive device for the monitoring of free flaps. Thus, it may improve flap survival rates by detecting vascular compromise at an early stage. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery 33:350–357, 2013. “
“In brachial

plexus injuries, though nerve transfers and root grafts have improved the results for shoulder and elbow reconstruction, wrist extension has received little attention. We operated on three young patients with C5–C8 root injuries of the left brachial plexus, each operated upon within 6 months of trauma. For wrist extension reconstruction, we transferred a proximal branch of the

check details flexor digitorum superficialis to the motor branch of the extensor carpi radialis brevis. Twenty-four months after surgery, all patients recovered some degree of active wrist motion, from full flexion to near neutral. Independent control of finger flexion and wrist extension was not observed. In C5–C8 root injuries of the brachial plexus, transfer of a flexor digitorum superficialis motor branch to the extensor carpi radialis brevis produces limited recovery. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery, 2013. “
“Composite defects of bone and soft tissues represent a reconstructive challenge. Several techniques have been described in the medical literature; however, extensive composite defects should be reconstructed with microvascular free tissue transfer. The purpose of this report is to present the use of a composite latissimus dorsi and serratus anterior and rib free flap (LD-SA/rib) as an alternative procedure in patients who cannot undergo more commonly used vascularized bone-containing free flap reconstruction. Since January 2009, 12 patients have undergone bone and soft tissues reconstruction with a composite LD-SA/rib flap. In this case series, indications for LD-SA/rib reconstruction were large mandibular defects after oral cancer ablation, scalp defects, and lower extremity defects. All flaps survived entirely.

In contrast to mice, CD25 deficiency in humans is accompanied by

In contrast to mice, CD25 deficiency in humans is accompanied by severe immunodeficiency that is characterized by susceptibility to opportunistic pathogens and a normal Treg frequency [9, 14, 15, 21-24]. In addition, IL-2-deficient mice are fully capable of rejecting allografts, whereas CD25-deficient humans are not [24, 49, 50]. Therefore, CD25 may be more important for effector function in humans and more

important for tolerance in mice since only Treg cells constitutively express CD25 in mice. This may explain why blocking CD25 during tumor immuno-therapy has not translated well from mice to humans [51]. Discrepancies between mouse and human immunology Selleck BGJ398 have been described elsewhere and is not unexpected since the species diverged 65–75 million years ago [52]. Therefore, studies conducted in mice on the role of IL-2 GSK1120212 order in T-cell function may not exactly translate to humans, and this study may offer one possible explanation for these differences.

We believe that the discovery of this CD4+CD25INT population is particularly important for therapies that target CD25/IL-2 and that hopefully by studying the response of this population we can better understand the mechanism of these therapies and improve their clinical efficacy. We evaluated the response of the CD4+CD25INTFOXP3− population to IL-2 immunotherapy. Over the course of IL-2 immunotherapy in cancer patients, the percentage

of CD4+ T cells that were CD25INT population decreased, while the CD25NEG increased and Treg populations stayed relatively stable, Wilson disease protein suggesting these populations were differentially affected by the therapy. From these studies, it was clear that the CD25INT population was affected by the IL-2 therapy, however, it is currently not known exactly how the CD25INT population responded to the therapy. One possibility is that the CD25INT cells may have downregulated or shed CD25 [53]. However, we did not see diminution of CD25 on the Treg cells, and we demonstrated that not all of the CD25INT population downregulated expression of CD25 in response to rhIL-2 in vitro and that some even increased CD25 expression. In addition, in vitro stimulation with rhIL-2 also suggested that the CD25INT cells are differentially responsive to rhIL-2, as shown by Ki67 staining, and could therefore be act-ivated to a greater degree than the CD25NEG and Treg populations. Therefore, we believe that the disappearance of the CD25INT population observed in IL-2 cancer patients is most likely a combination of events, including decreased surface expression of CD25 and increased activation, which might have led to AICD and/or egress from the blood to tissue. Nevertheless, it is clear that the CD25INT population is greatly affected by IL-2 immunotherapy and may be integral to the antitumor immune response.

4% agar (Wako Pure Chemical Industries, Osaka, Japan) containing

4% agar (Wako Pure Chemical Industries, Osaka, Japan) containing vancomycin (10 μg/ml) (Brucella plate) at 37°C under microaerophilic

conditions as previously described (21). Bacterial growth was measured by determining the OD at 600 nm (OD600) with a spectrophotometer (GE Healthcare Bio-Science, Piscataway, NJ, USA) and CFU were determined for bacterial viability, when appropriate. The gDNA of HPK5 extracted by the QIAamp DNA Mini kit (Qiagen GmbH, Hilden, Germany) was subjected to PCR with primers specific to babA2 (babA2-Fnc1, 5′-GAAAAAACATGAAAAAACACATCCTTTCAT-3′ and babA2-Rmn2, 5′-TCTGGGTTAATGGCTTGCC-3′) and sabA (sabA-F, 5′-GGCTATCAAATCGGCGAAGC-3′ and sabA-R, find more 5′-GAGATACACGCTATAGAGCC-3′) according to the following click here conditions: for babA2, preheat for 5 min at 94°C, followed by 40 cycles at 94°C for 30 s, 49°C for 30 s, and 72°C for 1 min, and 72°C for 5 min. For sabA, the former conditions were changed by adding the extension steps of 43°C for 30 s at annealing and 72°C for 2 min. The amplicons of babA2 and sabA were cloned into the pGEM-T-Easy vector (Promega, Madison, WI, USA) to produce pBAH and pSAH, respectively. The cloned plasmids, pBAH and pSAH, purified with the QIAprep Spin Miniprep kit (Qiagen GmbH), were employed for analyzing the sequences of these fragments using a BigDye Terminator v1.1 Cycle Sequencing kit and Applied Biosystems

3130 Genetic Analyzer (Applied Biosystems, Foster, CA, USA) to compare the corresponding

sequences of babA2 (HP1243 and jhp0833) and sabA (HP0725 and jhp0662). The kanamycin resistance (kan) cassette (1.0-kb) of pUC4K Vitamin B12 (GE Healthcare Bio-Science), digested with BamHI restriction enzyme, was ligated to the BclI site of the babA2 and sabA fragments in the plasmids, pBAH and pSAH, to construct pBAH-kan and pSAH-kan, respectively. The purified DNA of pBAH-kan or pSAH-kan were utilized as donor DNA to obtain babA2- or sabA-disrupted isogenic mutants of HPK5, HPK5BA2 and HPK5SA4, respectively, by allelic exchange mutagenesis as previously described (20). The disruption of either babA2 or sabA genes by kan cassette in the mutant strains was confirmed by PCR. Furthermore, reverse-transcription PCR (Toyobo, Osaka, Japan) using mRNA extracted from both disrupted mutants with TRIzol reagent (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA) confirmed the absence of babA2 or sabA transcripts in the mutant strains. Bacterial labeling with FITC (Sigma) was carried out according to a previous report (22), with modifications. Briefly, H. pylori was cultivated in Brucella broth for 24 hr, corresponding to the late exponential to early stationary phases, and then 1 ml of the bacterial culture broth (OD600= 1.0) was centrifuged (7000 rpm) for 5 min to harvest the bacterium. The bacterial cells were suspended well with 1 ml of PBS including 0.1 μg of FITC at a final concentration of 0.

However, the lack of efficacy of LGG in several clinical trials w

However, the lack of efficacy of LGG in several clinical trials with IBD patients [22–24,27] and in animal models of colitis [28,29] suggests that LGG contains factors that confound its anti-inflammatory effects in vivo. Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is a macroamphiphilic molecule anchored in the cytoplasmic membrane through its glycolipid moiety. It consists of a glycerol-phosphate or ribitol-phosphate chain decorated with d-alanine ester or glycosyl substitutions, and extending into the cell wall [30]. It is generally regarded as a proinflammatory

bacterial molecule. LTA can be seen as the Gram-positive counterpart of Gram-negative lipopolysaccharides (LPS) [31,32], as both molecules stimulate macrophages to secrete proinflammatory cytokines in vitro, although LTA is generally less active [33]. The in vivo importance of the proinflammatory potential of LTA of gut bacteria is less clear. Trametinib supplier In healthy conditions, LTA does not cause excessive inflammation in the gut, as intestinal epithelial cells have developed special mechanisms to tolerate

the continuous exposure to LTA of commensals in the gut lumen, such as down-regulation of TLR expression [34,35]. In the inflamed and more permeable gut of IBD patients LTA can, however, be hypothesized to activate macrophages and other inflammatory cells [36], although this needs to be substantiated further. In the present work, we investigated the impact of a dedicated gene-knock-out MAPK Inhibitor Library price mutation (dltD) on the anti-inflammatory efficacy of the probiotic strain LGG in a murine experimental colitis model. This LGG dltD mutant was constructed and characterized previously [37]. Its LTA molecules were shown to be completely devoid

of d-alanine esters, drastically altering the LTA structure in situ on live LGG bacterial cells [37]. We induced colitis in mice by administration of dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) to focus on the involvement of epithelial barrier disruption and innate immunity. Pathogen-free female BALB/c and C57/BL6 mice, 6–8 weeks old, weighing 16–22 g, were obtained from Harlan (Zeist, the Netherlands). The mice were housed in conventional filter-top cages and had free access to commercial feed and water. All experiments were performed under the approval of the K. U. Leuven Animal Experimentation Avelestat (AZD9668) Ethics Committee (Project approval number 027/2008). Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (ATCC53103) (LGG) and its derivatives CMPG5540 (dltD mutant; tetracycline resistant) [37] and CMPG5340 (wild-type control strain used in the in vivo persistence analysis; erythromycin and tetracycline resistant) [38] were grown routinely at 37°C in de Man–Rogosa–Sharpe (MRS) medium (Difco; BD Biosciences, Erembodegem, Belgium) under static conditions. For solid medium, 15 g/l agar was used. If required, antibiotics were used at the following concentrations: 5 µg/ml of erythromycin and 10 µg/ml of tetracycline.

Periodontally healthy subjects should require gingival removal du

Periodontally healthy subjects should require gingival removal during periodontal aesthetic surgery for the correction of gingival discrepancies and asymmetries. Exclusion criteria were pregnancy, lactation, current smoking, and smoking within the past five years, periodontal or/and antibiotic

therapies in the previous six months, use of mouthrinses containing antimicrobials in the preceding two months, systemic condition that could affect the progression of periodontal disease (e.g. diabetes, immunological disorders) and long-term administration of anti-inflammatory check details and immunosuppressive medications. Clinical examination.  All clinical examinations were performed by one examiner (VRS) who was calibrated, as previously described [16]. The intra-examiner variability was 0.21 mm for PD and 0.22 mm for CAL. The clinical parameters, registered dichotomously [i.e. BoP], were

calculated by the Kappa-Light test and the intra-examiner agreement was >0.85. The following parameters were assessed at six sites of all teeth, excluding third molars, using a manual periodontal probe (UNC15, Hu-Friedy, Chicago, IL, USA): plaque index (PI), BoP (presence/absence), suppuration (SUP, presence/absence), marginal bleeding (MB, presence/absence), PD (mm) and CAL (mm). Experimental groups.  Based on their periodontal status, the subjects were see more divided into one of the following groups: (1)

 Periodontally healthy (n = 15; control): Subjects with no sites with CAL >3 mm and <20% of sites presenting BoP and/or MB. Saliva sampling.  isometheptene The saliva samples were obtained around 8:00 a.m. Volunteers were instructed not to brush their teeth during the preceding 12 h and not to drink or eat anything for 1 h before sampling to avoid contamination with non-salivary components. Approximately 500 μl of saliva was transferred to 1.5 ml tubes in which 10 μl of 250 mm EDTA had been added. Samples were placed on ice and processed within 1 h after collection. Saliva samples were clarified by centrifugation at 13,000 g at 4 °C for 10 min, and the supernatants were collected and frozen at −70 °C until laboratory analysis. Total concentration of protein in saliva was determined by the method of Bradford to check for variations in salivary flow (Sigma-Aldrich, St Louis, MO, USA). Gingival biopsies sampling.  For the chronic periodontitis group, the gingival biopsies were collected from teeth indicated for exodontia due to advanced periodontitis in order to obtain representative areas of the periodontal inflammation. If the patient had two or more teeth with these characteristics, biopsy only one tooth with the worst diagnosis was included.

Influence of Maternal Nutritional Status on Vascular Function in

Influence of Maternal Nutritional Status on Vascular Function in the Offspring. Microcirculation 18(4), 256–262. Suboptimal maternal nutritional status has been implicated in the development of cardiovascular risk in the child. Initially inferred from studies of low-birthweight children, investigations in cohorts of women subjected to famine provide direct evidence for an independent influence of the mother’s diet on the cardiovascular health of her child. Animal studies from rodents and sheep have shown associations between maternal undernutrition and raised blood pressure, as well as abnormalities in resistance artery function, particularly

in endothelium-dependent responses. Early life exposure to the influences of maternal over nutritional states, e.g. obesity and excessive gestational weight gain, has also been associated with markers of cardiovascular risk in man, and animal models have shown raised blood pressure and endothelial dysfunction JAK2 inhibitor drug in offspring of diet-induced obese dams. Increased sympathetic tone is commonly associated with hypertension in animal models of both under nutritional and over nutritional states. This and several other similarities may indicate commonality of mechanism and could reflect supranormal nutritional status in postnatal life in both conditions. “
“Please cite this paper as: Drummond and Tom (2012). Presenting Data: drug discovery Can You Follow A Recipe? Microcirculation 19(1),

94–98. It is exceedingly difficult Alanine-glyoxylate transaminase to explain many statistical concepts in terms that are both technically accurate and easily understood by those with only a cursory knowledge of the topic. This wise note appears at the opening of a valuable book on reporting statistics [4]. In this series so far, we have tackled this difficult task, and accommodated the need to ‘avoid the fine points and distinctions that would detract from an explanation otherwise adequate for most readers’. In other words, we are writing for a readership of science authors and not for professional statisticians. Even statisticians differ between one another in their

preferences and procedures, and for consistency we shall continue to use the book cited above (apart from small deviations) as the basis for a uniform set of suggestions. Ultimately, this will become a substantial list, but we will cross reference this list to the concepts and principles we address in further articles. In this long list of suggestions, we shall give reasons for making these suggestions. A good analogy is a cookery recipe. It helps if you’re told why things are done in the way suggested, and the principles (as long as they are sound!) are explained clearly. We can extend this analogy: food writers themselves have differences; the best writers recognize that ingredients differ, and even the infrequent cook knows that precise weights and measures need not guarantee a successful dish.