For 89% the hearing loss was congenital Language results were re

For 89% the hearing loss was congenital. Language results were related to age at diagnosis, age at first fitting of hearing aids and age at enrolment in the intervention program. Confounding variables such as IQ degree of hearing loss and family parameters were controlled for in regression analyses.

Results: Early commencement of family centred intervention had a significant impact on language outcomes

as opposed to age at diagnosis and age at fitting of hearing aids.

Conclusion: In managing intervention in children with hearing loss, time between diagnosis and onset of early intervention should be kept as short as possible. However, age of entry to early intervention explained only about 4% of the AZD8186 ic50 variance in language outcomes. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: To examine the case mix and patient characteristics and outcomes of the nontrauma emergency (NTE) service in an academic Division of Acute Care


Methods: An NTE service (attending, chief resident, postgraduate year-3 and postgraduate year-2 residents, and two physician assistants) was created in July 2005 for all urgent and emergent inpatient and emergency department general surgery patient consults and admissions. An Selleck SC75741 NTE database was created with prospective data collection of all NTE admissions initiated from November 1, 2007. Prospective data were collected by a dedicated trauma registrar and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation-intensive care unit (ICU) coordinator daily. NTE case

mix and ICU characteristics were reviewed for the 2-year time period January 1, 2008, through December 31, 2009. During the same time period, trauma operative cases and procedures were examined and compared with the NTE case mix.

Results: Thousand seven hundred eight patients were admitted to the NTE service during this time period (789 in 2008 and 910 in 2009). Surgical intervention was required in 70% of patients admitted to the NTE service. Exploratory laparotomy or laparoscopy was performed in 449 NTE patients, comprising 37% of all surgical procedures. In comparison, only 118 trauma patients (5.9% of admissions) required a major laparotomy or thoracotomy during the same time period. Acuity JNJ-26481585 of illness of NTE patients was high, with a significant portion (13%) of NTE patients requiring ICU admission. NTE patients had higher admission Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation III scores [61.2 vs. 58.8 (2008); 58.2 vs. 55.8 (2009)], increased mortality [(9.71% vs. 4.89% (2008); 6.78% vs. 5.16% (2009)], and increased readmission rates (15.5% vs. 7.4%) compared with the total surgical ICU (SICU) admissions.

Conclusion: In an era of declining operative caseload in trauma, the NTE service provides ample opportunity for complex general surgery decision making and operative procedures for surgical residency education, including advanced surgical critical care management.

The process of EB formation (mimicking the early postimplantation

The process of EB formation (mimicking the early postimplantation embryo development) is regulated by RA-induced apoptosis through the activation of caspase and P38 MAPK/JNK pathway. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 28: 190-200, 2013.”
“Introduction and objectives. Because acute aortic syndrome (AAS) is associated with high mortality, early diagnosis and treatment are vital. The aim of the Spanish Acute Aortic Syndrome Study (RESA) was to investigate the effectiveness of current treatment of AAS in a broad range of tertiary care hospitals in


Methods. Between January 2005 and December 2007, 24 tertiary care hospitals reported data on 519 patients with AAS (78% male, mean age 61 13 years, range 20-92 years): 357 had type-A AAS and 162 had type B.

Results. The time delay between symptom onset and diagnosis was <24 hours in 67% of cases and >72 hours in 11%. Some 80% of patients learn more with type-A AAS were treated surgically. The interval between diagnosis and surgery was <24 hours in 90% of cases. In patients with type-B AAS, 34% received invasive treatment: 11% had surgery and 23% underwent endovascular procedures. Mortality

during hospitalization in patients with type-A disease was 33% in those treated surgically and 71% in those treated medically. Mortality mTOR inhibitor in patients with type-B disease was 17% with medical treatment, 27% with endovascular treatment and 50% with surgical treatment.

Conclusions. Despite significant advances in the diagnosis of AAS, in-hospital

mortality remains high. The findings of this study are representative of a broad range of unselected selleck patients undergoing treatment for the disease and support the need for continuing improvements in therapeutic approaches to AAS.”
“The purpose of this study is to investigate diagnostic and therapeutic strategies that will enable easy differentiation between minimally invasive follicular carcinoma (MIFC) and widely invasive follicular carcinoma (WIFC). We retrospectively reviewed 234 follicular thyroid carcinoma cases to compare the diagnostic and therapeutic characteristics between the minimally and the widely invasive types. Eighty-nine patients were diagnosed with MIFC (mean age, 39.2 +/- 14.9 years) and 145 were diagnosed with WIFC (mean age, 49.0 +/- 17.7 years). Low diagnostic accuracy from preoperative cytology and frozen sections resulted in 60 patients undergoing subtotal thyroidectomies and 57 cases required a second operation for complete thyroidectomy. Patients in the MIFC group were younger, and had small-sized tumors, lower postoperative thyroglobulin levels, lower recurrent rates and lower cancer mortality rates than those in the WIFC group. Diagnostic accuracy from frozen sections in the WIFC group was relatively better. After a mean follow-up period of 9.0 +/- 0.4 years, 41 of the 234 (17.

Furthermore, a blockade of inhibitory and excitatory

Furthermore, a blockade of inhibitory and excitatory find more neocortical 5-HT function may be inferred, which is likely to reduce (excitatory) DAergic input to the mesolimbic target regions of corticothalamostriatal projections.”
“Background-Performance measures that emphasize only a treat-to-target approach may motivate overtreatment with high-dose statins, potentially leading to adverse events and unnecessary costs. We developed a clinical action performance measure for lipid management in patients with diabetes mellitus that is designed to encourage appropriate treatment

with moderate-dose statins while minimizing overtreatment.

Methods and Results-We examined data from July 2010 to June 2011 for 964 818 active Veterans Affairs primary care patients >= 18 years of age with diabetes mellitus. We defined 3 conditions as successfully meeting the clinical action measure for patients 50 to 75 years old: (1) having a low-density lipoprotein (LDL) <100 mg/dL, (2) taking a moderate-dose statin regardless of LDL level or measurement, or (3) receiving appropriate clinical action (starting, switching, Entrectinib cost or intensifying statin therapy) if LDL is >= 100 mg/dL. We examined possible overtreatment

for patients >= 18 years of age by examining the proportion of patients without ischemic heart disease who were on a high-dose statin. We then examined variability in measure attainment across 881 facilities using 2-level hierarchical multivariable logistic models. Of 668 209 patients with diabetes mellitus who were 50 to 75 years of age, 84.6% passed the clinical action measure: 67.2% with LDL <100 mg/dL, 13.0% with LDL >= 100 mg/dL and either on a moderate-dose statin (7.5%) or with appropriate clinical action (5.5%), and 4.4% with no index LDL on at least a moderate-dose statin. Pictilisib Of the entire cohort >= 18 years of age, 13.7% were potentially overtreated. Facilities with higher rates of meeting the current threshold measure (LDL <100 mg/dL) had higher rates of potential overtreatment (P<0.001).


of a performance measure that credits appropriate clinical action indicates that almost 85% of diabetic veterans 50 to 75 years of age are receiving appropriate dyslipidemia management. However, many patients are potentially overtreated with high-dose statins. (Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2013; 6: 66-74.)”
“Primary myelofibrosis (PMF) is a myeloproliferative neoplasm. There are 31 reported cases of cutaneous involvement by PMF, most of which have been described as “”extramedullary hematopoiesis.” We report a new case of cutaneous involvement by PMF and demonstrate mutation of the Janus kinase 2 gene in the cutaneous lesions. Extramedullary myelofibrosis is best considered a metastatic phenomenon. Reporting such cases as extramedullary hematopoiesis may cause confusion with reactive forms of extramedullary hematopoiesis.

Am J Clin Nutr 2009; 89: 27-36 “
“Objectives Understanding p

Am J Clin Nutr 2009; 89: 27-36.”
“Objectives Understanding patient’s perceptions about palliative care is necessary to make an effective referral. The aim was to develop and validate a measure of patient perceptions. Methods Items were generated through patient, family caregiver and health professional interviews. The Perceptions of Palliative Care Instrument (PPCI) was administered to 85 patients with advanced cancer (AC). A subset (n=39) completed it 7days later. Participants also completed the Palliative Dinaciclib research buy Care Outcome

Scale (POS), the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS) and the Distress Thermometer (DT) for validation purposes. Results Factor analysis revealed four domains (positive and negative emotional and cognitive reactions to palliative care, emotional and practical palliative care needs and perceptions of health) and eight subscales BMS-345541 cell line with factor loadings for all items above 0.51, explaining 6181% of the total variance. Reliability

analyses revealed high internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha coefficients >0.76). Intraclass correlation coefficients showed moderate to strong correlations between time points indicating stability over time. All POS items correlated with two or more dimensions of the PPCI (all r>0.30); ESAS total distress correlated positively with the palliative care needs domain and the DT with needs and perceived burden (all r>0.30). Conclusions The PPCI is a four-factor, 37-item measure that assesses perceptions of palliative

care held by patients with AC. The measure has good internal consistency, testretest reliability and convergent validity. Copyright (c) 2012 John Wiley & 点击此处 Sons, Ltd.”
“Hepatic tuberculosis is an uncommon form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, particularly when it presents in the form of liver abscess. Here, we report a 64-year-old man who was admitted to our hospital having experienced intermittent chills for 3 months. Aspiration of the liver abscess revealed neither bacteria nor acid-fast bacilli, but pus and granulation tissue were found. Antituberculous therapy was started empirically and cultures of the abscess confirmed the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis 3 weeks later. We suggest that tuberculous liver abscess should be considered in patients not showing typical features or who fail to respond to antibiotics.”
“In spite of the importance of and the considerable variability observed in Passiflora (Passifloraceae), little is known about the genetic diversity of most of the species of this genus. We evaluated the genetic diversity by RAPD markers in 18 genotypes of Passiflora trintae. The 15 primers generated 112 markers, 84% of which were polymorphic. The genetic distance estimated by the complement of the Dice index (average dissimilarity = 0.30) and genotype grouping based on the UPGMA algorithm showed low variability among genotypes.

Conclusions FBT showed continued clinically important analgesic

Conclusions. FBT showed continued clinically important analgesic effects and was generally well tolerated over 12 weeks of treatment.”
“Many genetic variants have been shown to affect drug response through changes in drug efficacy and likelihood of adverse effects. Much of pharmacogenomic science has focused on discovering and clinically implementing single gene variants with large effect sizes. Given the increasing complexities of drug responses and their variability, a systems approach may be enabling for discovery of new biology in this area. Further, systems approaches may be useful in addressing challenges Selleck OH-FMK Caspase Inhibitor VI in moving these data to clinical implementation, including creation of predictive

models of drug response phenotypes, Cl-amidine improved clinical decision-making through complex biological

models, improving strategies for integrating genomics into clinical practice, and evaluating the impact of implementation programs on public health. WIREs Syst Biol Med 2014, 6:125-135. doi: 10.1002/wsbm.1255 For further resources related to this article, please visit the . Conflict of interest: The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article.”
“Objective: To understand how handling of missing data influences the statistical power and bias of treatment effects in randomised controlled trials of painful knee osteoarthritis (OA).

Methods: We simulated trials with missing data (withdrawals) due to lack-of-efficacy. Outcome measures were response/non-response according to the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OMERACT-OARSI) set of responder criteria, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC)

pain and physical function from the WOMAC questionnaire, and patient global assessment. We used five methods for managing missing data: ignoring the missing data, last and baseline observation carried forward (LOCF and BOCF), and multiple imputation with two different strategies. The treatment effect was then analysed by appropriate CHIR-99021 PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitor univariate and longitudinal statistical methods, and power, bias and mean squared error (MSE) was assessed by comparing the estimated treatment effect in the trials with missing data with the estimated treatment effect on the trials without missing data.

Results: The best imputation method in terms of high power and low bias/MSE was our implementation of regression multiple imputation. The most conservative method was the data augmentation Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) multiple imputation. The LOCF, BOCF and the complete-case methods were not particularly conservative and gave relatively low power and high bias. The analysis on the WOMAC pain scale gave less bias and higher power than the OMERACT-OARSI responder outcome measure.

Conclusions: Multiple imputation of missing data may be used to decrease bias/MSE and increase power in OA trials.

“We report a case of an 18-year-old female who was referre

“We report a case of an 18-year-old female who was referred to our

institution after incurring a permanent quadriplegia resulting from spinal cord infarction following cricotracheal resection Methods were case report and review of the literature. A tracheal stenosis had resulted from long-term intubation after premature birth, followed by tracheotomy after 1 year, surgical revision Go 6983 at 4 years of age and a spontaneous closure at the age of 6 after decannulation. At the age of 18, a cricotracheal resection was performed at another institution At the termination of the procedure, a chin-to-chest suture was placed to prevent unintentional hyperextension of the neck She was extubated on the third postoperative day, however, serious dyspnea required repeated re-Intubation for 2 days thereafter She developed paraplegia on the sixth postoperative day, prompting an MRI to be performed,

which identified spinal cord edema Intravenous administration of Elafibranor ic50 steroids in high doses was ineffective and unfortunately the patient has remained severely impaired since then. Permanent quadriplegia is a complication of cricotracheal resection with chin-to-chest sutures and should be included in the informed consent process. Therefore, a daily postoperative neurological examination should be performed in these patients Immediate MRI should be performed if any abnormal findings are seen to verify the diagnosis. Quadriplegia in this setting likely resulted from compromised blood supply with concomitant edema, however, the exact cause of injury remains unclear: despite having chin-to-chest sutures, R788 concentration the patient’s head remained in neutral position and was not in hyperflexion. Such an injury is likely more susceptible to steroid

therapy if diagnosed as early as possible. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Severity of the Harlequin deformity seen in unicoronal synostosis may be augmented when frontoparietal suture synostosis has an associated fusion of the frontosphenoidal suture or in cases of isolated frontosphenoidal synostosis. The purpose of the current study is to characterize various suture fusion patterns along the coronal ring using a modified orbital index (MOI), orbital angle (OA), and endocranial base (EB) angle.

This study is a retrospective single institution cohort study. Charts were reviewed over the past 12 years; patients with isolated UCS were included. MOI, OA, and EB were used to identify 3 groups of UCS patients.

Twenty-one patients were identified for inclusion in skeletal dysmorphology analysis using MOI, OA, and EB measures. Frontoparietal synostosis patients were diagnosed at significantly younger ages than frontoparietal + frontosphenoidal patients (P = 0.0001). Ipsilateral MOI measures were more severe for frontoparietal patients compared with frontoparietal + frontosphenoidal patients (P = 0.0239).

0008, respectively) The plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine le

0008, respectively). The plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine levels at 06:00 h were markedly lower than those at 18:00 h in NSs (P = 0.002 and 0.003, respectively). There were no significant changes in the baPWV of HPs at 06:00 h, noon, 18:00 h, or midnight. selleck compound The plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine levels at 06:00 h were notably lower than those at 18:00 h in HPs (P = 0.004 and 0.01, respectively). Only NSs showed a significant reduction in the baPWV with a decrease in the plasma catecholamine levels in the morning, suggesting that the baPWV of

NSs may be correlated with the variation of the plasma catecholamine levels.”
“Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, or prion diseases, are lethal neurodegenerative disorders caused by the infectious agent named prion, whose main constituent is an aberrant conformational isoform of the cellular prion protein, PrPC. The mechanisms of prion-associated neurodegeneration and the physiologic

function of PrPC are still unclear, although it is now increasingly acknowledged that PrPC plays a role in cell differentiation and survival. PrPC thus exhibits dichotomic attributes, as it can switch from a benign function under normal conditions to the triggering of neuronal death during disease. By reviewing data from models of prion infection and PrP-knockout paradigms, here we discuss the possibility that Ca2+ is the hidden factor behind the multifaceted behavior of PrPC. By featuring in almost all processes of cell signaling, Ca2+ might explain diverse aspects of PrPC pathophysiology, including the recently proposed one in which PrPC acts as a mediator of synaptic degeneration in Alzheimer’s disease. (C) International GNS-1480 price Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.”
“Terbinafine, a widely used antifungal agent, may rarely Selleckchem AZD4547 cause cutaneous side effects with an incidence of 2.7%. Generalized pustular eruptions are quite uncommon but severe adverse cutaneous reactions of terbinafine

have been reported. The main pustular eruptions due to terbinafine include acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis and drug induced pustular psoriasis. In this report, two cases of acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis and one case of generalized pustular psoriasis triggered with terbinafine are presented.”
“Trigeminal neuralgia is the worst pain that human beings have ever experienced. Few researches have illustrated perioperative pain in patients with trigeminal neuralgia undergoing radiofrequency thermocoagulation (RFT) of the gasserian ganglion under local anesthesia. Because there are some undeniable drawbacks of using intravenous short-term anesthesia during the intervention repeatedly, some physicians keep patients awake throughout the puncture procedure, using local anesthesia. The purpose of this investigation was to examine perioperative pain in patients with trigeminal neuralgia undergoing RFT of the gasserian ganglion. Participants were 104 patients with classic trigeminal neuralgia.

Additional publications and abstracts were identified from review

Additional publications and abstracts were identified from review articles and from the references cited in the previously found articles. In addition to the experimental studies, only those human studies that specified the population learn more size, doses of vitamin D used, and the resulting effect on MS were considered.

Results: Vitamin D deficiency is very common among MS patients. Multiple preclinical studies have shown that vitamin D is a potent regulator of inflammation in MS.

Most observational studies support an association between high vitamin D levels and a reduced risk of developing MS. However, conflicting results have been reported by observational studies on the correlation between vitamin D and MS severity and by

interventional studies using vitamin D as a therapeutic agent for MS.

Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency in MS patients should be avoided. see more In addition, the risk of developing MS might be reduced by maintaining optimal vitamin D levels in the healthy population. Larger randomized interventional trials are needed to clarify the therapeutic effect of vitamin D in MS. (Endocr Pract. 2013; 19: 129-136)”
“The most important factor affecting the oocyte and early embryo transcriptome is the legacy from the follicular environment prior to meiotic resumption. Up to the 8-cell stage, the oocyte responds to maternal instructions stored before resumption of the meiotic division. Recent

evidence suggests that properly prepared or programmed oocytes (in vivo) can achieve close to 100% blastocyst rates in standard in vitro conditions/media. Therefore, the optimal oocyte requires perfect follicular timing and differentiation, but the intra-oocyte mechanisms involved in such preparation are not completely understood. In addition, the influence of maternal mRNA storage and degradation, as well as the length of the poly A tail that influences the general pattern of the oocyte/early embryo transcriptome, is an important factor. Several hypotheses have been put forth to explain the depletion of the maternal store, including the potential role of microRNA (miRNA) in this process. The activation of the embryonic genome could be dependent LY2603618 nmr on, or associated with, the process of maternal mRNA degradation, but obviously other functions are being activated at this critical time point. This review will focus on the period from full-size oocytes to the eight-cell stage and will summarize the impact of the important factors, that is, follicle, maternal RNA storage and embryonic genome activation, on the transcriptome.”
“Objective. To describe the maternal characteristics and birth outcomes of newborn infants affected with isolated ear congenital abnormalities (IECA), mainly isolated anotia/microtia and unclassified multiple congenital abnormalities (CAs) including anotia/microtia (UMAM).


Descriptive characteristics such as participant characteristics,

Descriptive characteristics such as participant characteristics, JNK inhibitor study design, types of cancer, length of study, and primary outcomes were extracted. Methodological rigour was assessed using a modified Delphi List. Due to the heterogeneity and the dearth of pre-surgical studies, we were limited to a systematic review rather than a meta-analysis.

Results: Eighteen studies were included consisting of a total of 966 participants. Lung cancer studies were the

predominant group represented. Most of the studies prescribed an aerobic intervention programs done prior to surgery. Mode, frequency, duration, and intensity of exercise intervention varied across the different cancer groups. The majority of studies showed preliminary positive change in clinical outcomes with significant improvements in the rate of incontinence, functional walking capacity and cardiorespiratory fitness.

Conclusion: Pre-surgical exercise may benefit cancer patients through positive effects on function and physical capacity. Surgical oncologists may consider pre-surgical exercise interventions as

a potential adjuvant therapy to improve patients’ outcomes. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“‘Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution’

Theodosius Dobzhansky

Why do organisms make the types of chemicals that they do? Evolutionary theory tells us that individuals within populations will BAY 1895344 be subject to mutation and that some of those mutations will be enzyme variants that make new chemicals. A mutant making a novel chemical for that species will only survive in the population if the ‘cost’ of making the new chemical is outweighed by the benefits that result from making that molecule. The benefits, or adverse consequences, that a novel chemical X

can confer to the individual organism are not a property of the simple existence of X in the cell but can be traced to one of the multiple properties that X will Crenolanib solubility dmso possess because of its molecular structure. By considering only three basic types of molecular property and by considering how selection pressures will differ for each kind of property, it is possible to account for much of the chemical diversity made by organisms. Such an evolutionary model can also explain why the properties of enzymes will differ depending on the molecular properties of the chemicals they make, and why the widely accepted terms ‘primary metabolism’ and ‘secondary metabolism’ have been so misleading and unsatisfactory.”
“The internal reliability and validity of the Aggregate Neurobehavioral Student Health and Educational Review parent’s questionnaire (ANSER-PQ) were evaluated. Three diagnostic groups participated: ( 1) attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; N = 100), ( 2) learning disability (N = 80), and ( 3) a combined group (N-100). The Conners’ parent and teacher rating scales were completed.

The morphologies, size distribution and thermosensitive character

The morphologies, size distribution and thermosensitive characteristics of gel particles were studied and the maximal swelling ratio and LCST (Lower Critical Solution Temperature) of gel particles increased obviously with the addition of SA comonomer. When the protein concentration was 250 mu g/mL, the optimized refolding conditions of denatured lysozyme with P(NIPAM-co-SA) hydrogel were that operating at the temperature of 35 degrees C and a urea concentration of 2M, in which the mass ratio of P(NIPAM-co-SA) hydrogel with 4% SA copolymerized to lysozyme was 10:1. Under the optimized

conditions, the activity recovery of lysozyme increased to 76.5% assisted by P(NIPAM-co-SA) gel particles compared with 55.6% by simple dilution. When refolding finished, the gel particles could be removed and recovered easily and the activity recovery of lysozyme was still as high as 61.5% after reused for 5 batches. With the addition of different amounts of SA comonomer, the hydrophobicity of the copolymer could be varied. Then the copolymerized hydrogel inhibits protein molecules aggregation more Ferroptosis inhibitor clinical trial effectively through the moderate hydrophobic interactions between copolymers and protein molecules in the course of lysozyme refolding compared with the presence of PNIPAM polymer. All results

above demonstrate that the P(NIPAM-co-SA) is a cost effective additive with tunable hydrophobicity for application in the refolding of recombinant proteins expressed as inclusion bodies in vitro. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 121: 2597-2605, 2011″
“Gd-based Gd65-xRExFe20Al15 (x = 0-20, RE Tb, Dy, Ho, and Er) alloys in ribbon form have been prepared by rapid CA-4948 supplier quenching technology. It is found that the Gd65-xTbxFe20Al15 ribbons are in amorphous state. However, for the Gd65-xRExFe20Al15(RE Dy, Ho, and Er) ribbons, in addition to a diffuse diffraction band, peaks from hexagonal rare-earth-rich phases are present indicating a mixture of amorphous and crystalline phases. This indicates that the heavier rare-earth elements (Dy,

Ho, and Er) will decrease glass formability in the Gd-based Gd65-xRExFe20Al15 (RE Dy, Ho, and Er) ribbons. The magnetic entropy changes of these ribbons increase with increasing the contents of the heavier rare-earth elements. The maximal magnetic entropy changes of the Gd45RE20Fe20Al15 (RE = Tb, Dy, Ho, and Er) ribbons are located in the range of 4.46-5.57 J/kg K under 50 kOe. Refrigerant capacity values are obtained to be about 580-720 J/kg under 50 kOe. These values are comparable to or even higher than those of Gd-based bulk metallic glass alloys. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3561447]“
“Current methods of assessing climate-induced shifts of species distributions rarely account for species interactions and usually ignore potential differences in response times of interacting taxa to climate change.