“Aim It has been reported that

BMI-1, a gene trans

“Aim It has been reported that

BMI-1, a gene transcription promoter overexpressed in various human cancers, is associated with poor survival. We investigated whether BMI-1 is a marker for cervical cancer by detecting the expression of BMI-1 in cervical cancer.\n\nMethods An immunohistochemistry (IHC) streptavidin-peroxidase technique was used to identify BMI-1 protein expression in 302 cervical cancer specimens. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot were employed to measure BMI-1 mRNA and protein level. The correlation between BMI-1 expression and clinicopathological factors was analyzed.\n\nResults Both BMI-1 mRNA and protein expression were evident in cervical carcinoma tissues. An intense positive rate of 55.3% (167/302) was observed by IHC. High BMI-1 expression was correlated with Anti-infection Compound Library clinical stage, lymph node metastasis, vascular invasion and Vorinostat inhibitor human papillomavirus (HPV) infection (P < 0.05), but there is insufficient evidence to confirm its value in tumor size, age, estrogen or progesterone receptor (P > 0.05). The BMI-1 protein level was positively correlated with the clinical stages of cervical carcinoma and a high BMI-1 expression was associated with

poor prognosis (P < 0.05).\n\nConclusion The high expression of BMI-1 in cervical cancer is related to tumor progression, lymph node metastasis and HPV infection, suggesting that cervical cancer with excessive BMI-1 expression possesses high metastases potential and that BMI-1 may be a promising biomarker for predicting metastasis in cervical cancer.”
“Living independently in the community is a primary goal for older adults, particularly for the estimated 10% to 20% of long-stay nursing home residents who have low care requirements. According Quisinostat to the model of person-environment fit, individuals with high levels of everyday competence have the ability to solve problems associated with everyday life. Nursing home residents with high levels of everyday competence and low care needs have poor person-environment fit, placing them at risk for declines in function,

maladaptive behavior, and affective disorders. The goal of this article is to present a framework for the integration of everyday competence with standardized goal-setting and care-planning processes to enable the transition of appropriate nursing home residents back to the community. Barriers to community transitions exist across several Key Domains: rehabilitation, personal assistance and services, caregiver support, finances, housing, and transportation. We propose a research agenda to develop and implement a toolkit based on this framework that nursing home staff can use to overcome barriers to transition by (1) assessing residents’ everyday competence, (2) developing personally meaningful goals that facilitate transition, and (3) conducting structured care planning to support resident goals around returning to the community.

MethodsRetrospective case review Information obtained in

\n\nMethods\n\nRetrospective case review. Information obtained included signalment, body weight, clinical signs, drug regimen, treatment duration, time to clinical remission, and laboratory results.\n\nResults\n\nNeither treatment efficacy between KU-57788 manufacturer fluconazole (75% remission) and itraconazole (90% remission) nor relapse rate (18% for itraconazole, 22% for fluconazole) was significantly different (P = .13, .75, respectively). Treatment duration was significantly longer for fluconazole (median 183 days) than for itraconazole (138 days; P = .001). Costs for fluconazole (median $1,223) were significantly less than for itraconazole

($3,717; P < .001). Incidence of increased ALT activities was not significantly different between groups (17% [3/18] for fluconazole, 26% [6/23] for itraconazole; P = .71).\n\nConclusions\n\nFluconazole buy Barasertib is associated with survival to clinical remission in 75% of dogs with blastomycosis. Although dogs receiving fluconazole were treated longer, drug costs were one-third those of itraconazole. Hepatotoxicosis, as estimated by increases in serum ALT activity, can be observed with similar incidence for both drugs.”
“In an attempt to identify chemical signals governing the general flower and silique feeding behavior of larvae of the orange tip butterfly, Anthocharis cardamines (L.), we investigated feeding behavior and chemistry of two major host plants: Cardamine pratensis

L. and Alliaria petiolata (Bieb.) Cavara & Grande (garlic mustard). Larvae reportedly feed mainly on flowers and siliques rather than leaves in nature, and did so when observed on the original host plants. Behavioral experiments, using detached A. petiolata branches, however, showed that larvae readily accepted leaves and only the final instar showed a tendency for directed movement towards floral parts. To search for semiochemicals that control plant part preference and to assess possible nutritional consequences of floral parts feeding, we determined glucosinolate

profiles and total nitrogen levels of floral parts and leaves. There was only moderate difference between glucosinolate profiles of leaves and floral parts within click here each of two host plant species. In contrast, the profiles of floral parts differed significantly between them. A. petiolata was dominated by 2-propenyl glucosinolate, while C. pratensis was dominated by aromatic glucosinolates and branched aliphatic glucosinolates, with considerable variation among populations. Nitrogen levels tended to be higher in floral parts than in leaves in A. petiolata, but not in C. pratensis, so floral feeding could not generally be attributed to higher N content. With the exception of a tendency of last instar larvae (L5) to move to the apex and ingest flowers and upper stem, we did not find either a plant chemistry basis or larval acceptance/rejection behavior that could explain the usual feeding of floral parts by orange tip larvae of all instars.

The mRNA findings were confirmed at the enzyme activity level by

The mRNA findings were confirmed at the enzyme activity level by measuring the glucuronidation of 1-naphthol, a

very good substrate for UGT1A6, as well as estradiol that is not glucuronidated by this enzyme. The results revealed that 1-naphthol glucuronidation activity was high in both the differentiated and undifferentiated cells, whereas estradiol glucuronidation was only detected in the differentiated cells. Thus, Caco-2 cell differentiation plays a major role in UGT expression and ensuing metabolic reactions.”
“Osteoarticular complications are common in human brucellosis, but the pathogenic mechanisms involved are largely unknown. In this manuscript, we described an immune mechanism for inflammatory bone loss in response to infection by Brucella abortus. We established a requirement for MyD88 and TLR2 in TNF-alpha-elicited osteoclastogenesis in response to B. abortus infection. CS from macrophages infected buy Sapanisertib with B. abortus induced BMM to PD173074 undergo osteoclastogenesis. Although B. abortus-infected macrophages actively secreted IL-1 beta, IL-6, and TNF-alpha, osteoclastogenesis depended on TNF-alpha, as CS from B. abortus-infected macrophages failed to induce osteoclastogenesis in BMM from TNFRp55(-/-) mice. CS from B. abortus-stimulated

MyD88(-/-) and TLR2(-/-) macrophages failed to express TNF-alpha, and these CS induced no osteoclast formation compared with that of the WT or TLR4(-/-) macrophages. Omp19, a B. abortus lipoprotein model, recapitulated the cytokine production and subsequent osteoclastogenesis induced by the whole bacterium. All phenomena were corroborated using Kinase Inhibitor Library chemical structure human monocytes, indicating that this mechanism could play a role in human osteoarticular brucellosis. Our results indicate that B. abortus, through its lipoproteins, may be involved

in bone resorption through the pathological induction of osteoclastogenesis. J. Leukoc. Biol. 91: 285-298; 2012.”
“The late-phase of long-term potentiation (L-LTP), the cellular correlate of long-term memory, induced at some synapses facilitates L-LTP expression at other synapses receiving stimulation too weak to induce L-LTP by itself. Using glutamate uncaging and two-photon imaging, we demonstrate that the efficacy of this facilitation decreases with increasing time between stimulations, increasing distance between stimulated spines and with the spines being on different dendritic branches. Paradoxically, stimulated spines compete for L-LTP expression if stimulated too closely together in time. Furthermore, the facilitation is temporally bidirectional but asymmetric. Additionally, L-LTP formation is itself biased toward occurring on spines within a branch. These data support the Clustered Plasticity Hypothesis, which states that such spatial and temporal limits lead to stable engram formation, preferentially at synapses clustered within dendritic branches rather than dispersed throughout the dendritic arbor.

Maturity had a significant effect on the

Maturity had a significant effect on the Fludarabine purchase chemical composition, DM, OM and estimated parameters (DDM,

DMI and RFV) of the leaves of the shrub species. Neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and condensed tannin (CT) contents increased with increasing maturity whereas the crude protein decreased. DM and estimated parameters also decreased with increasing maturity. CP, ADF, NDF, Ash and CT contents ranged from 6.4 to 33.3%, from 6.9 to 39.1%, from 10.1 to 50.5%, from 2.9 to 6.8% and from 0.7 to 15.8%, respectively. The OM and DM ranged from 93.2 to 97.1% and from 28.5 to 70.8%, respectively. The digestibility DM, DM intake and RFV ranged from 58.4 to 83.5%, from 2.4 to 11.9% and from 107.7 to 769.3, respectively ADF, NDF and condensed tannin contents of the leaves of the shrub species harvested at bear fruit stage were significantly higher than those harvested at before flowering and flowering stages, while CP contents and estimated parameters of the find more leaves of the shrub species harvested at flowering stage were significantly

higher than those harvested at before flowering and bear fruit stages. The biplot analysis indicated negative correlation of CP content with OM and DM, whereas it is positively correlated with CT and ash contents. On the other hand, ADF was positively correlated with NDF, whereas it is negatively correlated with estimated parameters. The shrub species harvested at the proper stage of maturity offers considerable potential

as high quality forage for ruminants Torin 1 research buy during critical period in the semi arid and arid regions.”
“There are currently limited therapeutic regimens available for effective treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Silymarin is a naturally derived polyphenolic antioxidant with hepatoprotective properties and is very widely used in clinical application; however, effect of silymarin on spontaneous HCC has not been studied. Silymarin was evaluated for its efficacy against spontaneous carcinogenesis using the HBV X protein (HBx) transgenic model. Silymarin was p.o. given to the HBx transgenic mice from 4 to 6 weeks of age. Our data indicated that silymarin has therapeutic effects on the early stages of liver damage, reversing fatty changes and recovering liver histopathology in a dose-dependent manner. To study the chemopreventive effects on the later stages of carcinogenesis, the mice at 13 months were split into a precancerous group and a group with significant liver carcinogenesis. After silymarin was given to the precancerous mice from 13 to 16 months of age, in contrast to an 80% incidence of HCC development in the untreated transgenic mice, no HCC was detected in any of these mice. Nonetheless, small hyperplastic nodules were detected in 86% of these precancerous mice. In the second group with notable HCC, silymarin was unable to block cancer progression.

22 29 +/- 2 21 mm, p smaller than 0 001), which represented an ab

22.29 +/- 2.21 mm, p smaller than 0.001), which represented an absolute and percent decrease in stent dimension of 1.10 +/- 0.40 mm and 4.70 +/- 1.76%, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, the predictors of larger recoil

were a higher prosthesis/annulus ratio (r(2)=0.0624, p=0.015) and the SAPIEN XT prosthesis (r(2)=0.1276, p=0.001). No significant changes in haemodynamic performance were observed at discharge and follow-up in patients with larger recoil. Conclusions: TAVI with a balloon-expandable valve was systematically associated with a certain degree of valve stent recoil after balloon deflation. Selleckchem MLN8237 A higher degree of valve oversizing and the SAPIEN XT prosthesis predicted a larger degree of stent recoil.”
“A novel phosphorylation I-BET-762 molecular weight motif for casein kinase 1 (CK1) in response to two sulfated lipids [sulfatide and cholesterol-3-sulfate (SCS)] was determined, using three functional proteins [myelin basic protein (MBP), tau protein (TP) and RhoA (a small GTPase)] and five

synthetic NIBP peptides as phosphate acceptors for the kinase in vitro. It was found that (i) MBP, p8 (positions 38-118) cleaved from MBP, and a synthetic peptide M103 were effectively phosphorylated, by CK1 delta in the presence of SCS; (ii) sulfatide in comparison with CH-3S highly enhanced autophosphorylation of CK1 delta; (iii) SCS had a high binding affinity with NIBP and peptide M103, but not other MBP peptides lacking K-G-R; and (iv) a novel consensus phosphorylation motif (K/R-X-K/R-X-X-S/T)

for CK1 was identified among several SCS-binding proteins (SCS-BPs) and three CK1 isoforms (delta, GSI-IX solubility dmso epsilon and gamma). The binding of SCS to two basic brain proteins (MBP and TP) resulted in the high stimulation of their phosphorylation by three CK1 isoforms (c 6 and 6), but not CK1 gamma. In contrast, an acidic protein (RhoA) was effectively phosphorylated by CK1 delta in the presence of SCS, and also highly phosphorylated by CK1 gamma in the presence of sulfatide. Our results presented here suggest that (i) sulfatide may function as an effective stimulator for autophosphorylation of CK1; and (ii) cellular SCS-binding proteins, containing novel phosphorylation motifs for CK1, may be preferentially phosphorylated by CK1 with isoform specificity at the highly accumulated level of SCS in the brain.”
“Objectives: To determine the patterns and proximity of reflux events in patients with adult-onset asthma (AOA) using hypopharyngeal multichannel intraluminal impedance (HMII) and to assess outcomes of antireflux surgery (ARS) in patients with AOA.\n\nDesign: Retrospective review of prospectively collected data.\n\nSetting: University hospital.\n\nPatients, Interventions, and Outcomes: All patients with AOA referred to our testing center underwent HMII, and those with abnormal proximal exposure, defined as laryngopharyngeal reflux at least once a day and/or high esophageal reflux at least 5 times a day, subsequently underwent ARS.

Modulation of the Vmh2 conformational/aggregation features by cha

Modulation of the Vmh2 conformational/aggregation features by changing the environmental conditions can be very useful in view of the potential protein applications.”
“Early delayed radiation Pevonedistat mouse effects are known to occur within several months after completing radiotherapy for brain tumors. We present marked changes of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan that occurred one month after radiotherapy in a patient with a pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma,

which was eventually diagnosed as an early delayed radiation effect. Such an early development of dramatic MRI change has not been reported in patients treated with radiotherapy for pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas.”
“By means of the elastic-plastic finite-element method (FEM) for calculating the distribution features of the von Mises stress and strain energy density, the influences of the applied stress on the von Mises stress of

the gamma’/gamma phases and the rafting of the gamma’ phase for the [011] orientation, single-crystal, nickel-based superalloy are investigated. The results show that, after being fully heat treated, the microstructure of the [011] orientation, single-crystal, nickel-based superalloy consists of the cuboidal gamma’ phase embedded coherently in the gamma matrix, and the cuboidal gamma’ phase on (100) plane is regularly arranged along a 45 deg angle relative to the [011] orientation. Compared with the matrix channel of [010] orientation, the bigger von Mises stress is produced within the [001] matrix channel when the tensile Liproxstatin-1 chemical structure stress is applied along the [011] orientation. Under the action of the larger principal stress component, the bigger expanding lattice strain occurs on the (001) plane of the

cuboidal gamma’ phase along the [010] direction, which may trap the Al, Ti atoms with a bigger atomic radius for promoting the directional growth of the gamma’ phase into the stripe-like HKI-272 solubility dmso rafted structure along the [001] orientation. The changes of the interatomic potential energy, misfit stress, and interfacial energy during the tensile creep are thought to be the driving forces of promoting the elements’ diffusion and directional growth of the gamma’ phase.”
“This work reports the effect of sintering temperature and compaction load on the quality of a-alumina (similar to particle size smaller than 1 mu m) membrane support for dry compaction method. We analyzed the membrane synthesis process to get good quality membrane support in a more economical way by reducing the holding time (4 h) at different sintering temperatures. The effect of initial compaction load on porosity, pore size, flexural strength and shrinkage during synthesis of alpha-alumina support at various sintering temperatures was investigated.

MATERIALS AND METHODS In this retrospective study, 48 patien

\n\nMATERIALS AND METHODS. In this retrospective study, 48 patients with cancer who developed pneumatosis or intestinal perforation were found by searching ZD1839 a radiology database. Of these patients, 24 patients (13 women and 11 men; mean age, 61 years; range, 39-83 years) receiving molecular targeted therapy without any confounding factors for pneumatosis or perforation were selected. Initial and follow-up CT scans were evaluated by two radiologists; medical records were reviewed to note clinical features,

management, and outcome.\n\nRESULTS. Seventeen (70.8%) patients were asymptomatic. Colorectal cancer (n = 10) and renal cell carcinoma (n = 5) were the most common malignancies; bevacizumab (n = 14) and sunitinib (n = 6) were the most common associated drugs. Imaging findings included intestinal perforation (20 sites in 18 patients), pneumatosis (n = 10), ascites (n = 8), pneumoperitoneum (n = 7), fistula formation (n = 7), and fluid collections (six collections in five patients). Fifteen (62.5%) patients were treated conservatively, seven (29.2%) underwent surgery, and two (8.3%) underwent percutaneous drainage. Molecular targeted therapy was discontinued in 22 of 24 patients; findings resolved in 19 patients, remained stable in one, and worsened

in one. One patient died after surgery. In both instances where the drug was continued, the abnormality worsened. Findings recurred in three of four patients in whom the drug was selleck chemicals llc restarted after initial resolution.\n\nCONCLUSION. Radiologists should be aware of intestinal

complications associated with molecular targeted therapy, including pneumatosis, bowel perforation, and fistula formation. Most patients can be treated conservatively after discontinuation of molecular targeted therapy. Continuing or restarting molecular targeted therapy can cause worsening or recurrent pneumatosis or perforation.”
“Chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is an integral membrane protein that is utilized during human immunodeficiency virus type-1 entry into host cells. CCR5 is a G-protein coupled receptor that contains seven transmembrane (TM) helices. However, the crystal structure of CCR5 has not been reported. A homology model of CCR5 was developed https://www.selleckchem.com/products/SB-525334.html based on the recently reported CXCR4 structure as template. Automated docking of the most potent (14), medium potent (37), and least potent (25) CCR5 antagonists was performed using the CCR5 model. To characterize the mechanism responsible for the interactions between ligands (14, 25, and 37) and CCR5, membrane molecular dynamic (MD) simulations were performed. The position and orientation of ligands (14, 25, and 37) were found to be changed after MD simulations, which demonstrated the ability of this technique to identify binding modes.

001), the IC higher

(P < 0 001), the IT750 greater (P

001), the IC higher

(P < 0.001), the IT750 greater (P = 0.026), the ACA smaller (P < 0.001), the LV greater (P < 0.001), and the IA wider (P = 0.019) in PCG eyes compared with AO eyes. However, the mean slope of no parameter differed significantly between PCG and AO eyes. The mean slopes of IC, IT1500, and IA differed between AO and YO eyes.\n\nCONCLUSIONS. Older eyes showed significantly different dynamic AS parameter responses in terms of change in PD compared with younger eyes. Thus, the authors suggest that changes in the dynamic features of AS parameters with age may contribute to angle closure development, in addition to any predisposing anatomic condition. (Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:693-697) DOI:10.1167/iovs.11-8389″
“Spontaneous hydrolytic deamination of DNA bases represents a considerable mutagenic threat to all organisms, selleck products particularly those living in extreme habitats. Cytosine is readily deaminated to uracil, which base pairs with adenine during replication, and most organisms encode at least one uracil DNA glycosylase (UDG) that removes this aberrant base from DNA with high

efficiency. Adenine deaminates to hypoxanthine approximately 10-fold less efficiently, and its removal from DNA in vivo has to date been reported to be mediated solely SB203580 nmr by alkyladenine DNA glycosylase. We previously showed that UdgB from Pyrobaculum aerophilum, a hyperthermophilic crenarchaeon, can excise hypoxanthine from oligonucleotide substrates, but as this organism is not amenable to genetic https://www.selleckchem.com/products/lcl161.html manipulation, we were unable to ascertain that the enzyme also has this role in vivo. In the present study, we show that UdgB from Mycobacterium smegmatis protects this organism against mutagenesis associated with deamination of both cytosine and adenine. Together with Ung-type uracil glycosylase, M. smegmatis UdgB also helps attenuate the cytotoxicity of the antimicrobial agent 5-fluorouracil.”
“This study investigated whether semantic integration in discourse context could be influenced by topic structure using event-related brain potentials. Participants read

discourses in which the last sentence contained a critical word that was either congruent or incongruent with the topic established in the first sentence. The intervening sentences between the first and the last sentence of the discourse either maintained or shifted the original topic. Results showed that incongruent words in topic-maintained discourses elicited an N400 effect that was broadly distributed over the scalp while those in topic-shifted discourses elicited an N400 effect that was lateralized to the right hemisphere and localized over central and posterior areas. Moreover, a late positivity effect was only elicited by incongruent words in topic-shifted discourses, but not in topic-maintained discourses.

We use the model to provide

context and summarize what is

We use the model to provide

context and summarize what is known about neurogenesis in urchin embryos. We review morphological features of the differentiation phase of neurogenesis and summarize current understanding of neural specification and regulation of proneural networks. Delta-Notch signaling is a common feature of metazoan neurogenesis that produces committed progenitors and it appears to be a critical phase of neurogenesis in urchin embryos. Descriptions of the differentiation phase of neurogenesis indicate a stereotypic sequence of neural differentiation and patterns of axonal growth. Features of neural differentiation are consistent with localized signals guiding growth cones with selleckchem trophic, learn more adhesive, and tropic cues. Urchins are a facile, postgenomic model with the potential of revealing many shared and derived features of deuterostome neurogenesis. genesis 52:208-221. (c) 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“Background: Two distinct

metalloproteinase types (fragilysin and metalloproteinase II/MPII) are encoded by the Bacteroides fragilis pathogenicity island. Results: Our assays determined substrate cleavage characteristics of fragilysin and MPII. Conclusion: MPII is the first zinc metalloproteinase with the dibasic cleavage preferences. Significance: Our results are important for understanding B. fragilis virulence and fundamental roles of the microbiome in human health and disease. Enterotoxigenic anaerobic Bacteroides fragilis is a significant source of inflammatory diarrheal disease and a risk factor for colorectal cancer. Two distinct metalloproteinase Semaxanib clinical trial types (the homologous 1, 2, and 3 isoforms of fragilysin (FRA1, FRA2, and

FRA3, respectively) and metalloproteinase II (MPII)) are encoded by the B. fragilis pathogenicity island. FRA was demonstrated to be important to pathogenesis, whereas MPII, also a potential virulence protein, remained completely uncharacterized. Here, we, for the first time, extensively characterized MPII in comparison with FRA3, a representative of the FRA isoforms. We employed a series of multiplexed peptide cleavage assays to determine substrate specificity and proteolytic characteristics of MPII and FRA. These results enabled implementation of an efficient assay of MPII activity using a fluorescence-quenched peptide and contributed to structural evidence for the distinct substrate cleavage preferences of MPII and FRA. Our data imply that MPII specificity mimics the dibasic ArgArg cleavage motif of furin-like proprotein convertases, whereas the cleavage motif of FRA (Pro-X-X-Leu-(Arg/Ala/Leu)) resembles that of human matrix metalloproteinases. To the best of our knowledge, MPII is the first zinc metalloproteinase with the dibasic cleavage preferences, suggesting a high level of versatility of metalloproteinase proteolysis.

56 to 99 36% for 2%/2 mm criteria and from 32 22 to 89 65% for 1%

56 to 99.36% for 2%/2 mm criteria and from 32.22 to 89.65% for 1%/1 mm criteria. We also tested our

commissioning method on a six-field head-and-neck cancer IMRT plan. The passing rate of the gamma-index test within the 10% isodose line of the prescription dose was improved from 92.73 to 99.70% and from 82.16 to 96.73% for 2%/2 mm and 1%/1 mm criteria, respectively. Real clinical data measured from Varian, Siemens, and Elekta linear accelerators were also used to validate our commissioning method and a similar level of accuracy was achieved.”
“An infrequent physical increase in the intensity of an auditory stimulus relative to an already loud frequently occurring “standard” is processed differently than an equally perceptible Ulixertinib physical decrease in intensity. This may be because a physical increment results in increased activation in two different systems, a transient and click here a change detector system (signalling detection of an increase in transient energy and a change from the past, respectively). By contrast, a decrease in intensity results in increased activation in only the change detector

system. The major question asked by the present study was whether a psychological (rather than a physical) increment would continue to be processed differently than a psychological decrement when both stimuli activated only the change detector system. Participants were presented with a sequence of 1000 Hz tones that followed a standard rule-based alternating high-low intensity pattern (LHLHLH). They were asked to watch a silent video and thus ignore the auditory stimuli. A rare “deviant” was created by repeating one WZB117 cell line of the stimuli (e.g., LHLHLLLH. The repetition of the high intensity stimulus thus acted as a relative, psychological increment compared to what the rule

would have predicted (the low intensity); the repetition of the low intensity stimulus acted as a relative, psychological decrement compared to what the rule would have predicted (the high intensity). In different conditions, the intensity difference between the low and high intensity tones was either 3, 9 or 27 dB. A large MMN was elicited only when the separation between the low and high intensities was 27 dB. Importantly, this MMN peaked significantly earlier and its amplitude was significantly larger following presentation of the psychological increment. Thus, a deviant representing an increment in intensity relative to what would be predicted by the auditory past is processed differently than a deviant representing a decrement, even when activation of the transient detector system is controlled. The psychological increment did not however elicit a later positivity, the P3a, often thought to reflect the interruption of the central executive and a forced switching of attention. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.