We chose to detect foxA, which is found in both pathogenic and non-pathogenic Y. enterocolitica. The results showed that both ail and foxA 4EGI-1 mw were conserved together in pathogenic strains and can therefore be used to confirm the detection of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica. check details Currently, we are attempting to extract bacterial DNA from clinical specimens to detect foxA in order to identify Y. enterocolitica directly from humans and other animals; and
we have some preliminary data (unpublished). Almost all Y. enterocolitica carry foxA while pathogenic strains carry ail. It is very important for real-time PCR detection of Y. enterocolitica to study sequence polymorphism in ail and foxA. It will be helpful to design specific primers and probes in the conserved region in order to develop real-time or traditional PCR methods. We are trying to establish a duplex real-time PCR to
detect Y. enterocolitica from clinical samples and to confirm its pathogenicity. Designing specific primers for foxA and ail in a combined detection system is valuable for increasing sensitivity and specificity in the detection of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica. Conclusion Analysis of polymorphisms in ail and foxA of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains from different times and regions showed ail to be an important virulence gene for pathogenic Y. enterocolitica, and that it has a highly conserved sequence. The gene encoding the ferrioxamine receptor, foxA, is also conserved in pathogenic strains, where 2 primary sequence patterns were found. More strains from outside China are needed for further study. Acknowledgements This work
Metabolism inhibitor was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (General Project, No. 30970094).and National Sci-Tech key project (2009ZX10004-201, 2009ZX10004-203). We thank Dr. Jim Nelson for critical reading of our manuscript. References 1. Bottone EJ: Yersinia enterocolitica: a panoramic view of a charismatic microorganism. CRC Crit Rev Microbiol 1977, 5:211–241.PubMedCrossRef 2. Pepe JC, Miller VL: Yersinia enterocolitica invasin: a primary role in the initiation of infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1993, 90:6473–6477.PubMedCrossRef 3. Cover TL, Aber RC: Yersinia Flucloronide enterocolitica. N Engl J Med 1989, 321:16–24.PubMedCrossRef 4. Grutzkau A, Hanski C, Hahn H, Riecken EO: Involvement of M cells in the bacterial invasion of Peyer’s patches: a common mechanism shared by Yersinia enterocolitica and other enteroinvasive bacteria. Gut 1990, 31:1011–1015.PubMedCrossRef 5. Pierson DE, Falkow S: The ail gene of Yersinia enterocolitica has a role in the ability of the organism to survive serum killing. Infect Immun 1993, 61:1846–1852.PubMed 6. Miller VL, Farmer JJ III, Hill WE, Falkow S: The ail locus is found uniquely in Yersinia enterocolitica serotypes commonly associated with disease. Infect Immun 1989, 57:121–131.PubMed 7.