Not only does soccer appear to induce a marked inflammatory respo

Not only does soccer appear to induce a marked inflammatory response during recovery [8], but it also increases the concentration of antioxidant molecules, such as total antioxidant status (TAS), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein carbonyls (PC) and uric acid [9]. Currently, the vast majority find more of published studies have compared the oxidant and antioxidant status of soccer players and sedentary controls. These studies have revealed that TAS, superoxide dismutase (SOD), uric acid, ascorbic acid and tocopherol plasma levels are all higher in soccer players than in sedentary controls, while malondialdehyde (MDA) levels

were lower [10, 11]. These findings suggest that exercise

training increases the production of free radicals and as a result, the utilization of natural endogenous antioxidants. Therefore, appropriate nutrition is likely to be vitally important in maintaining Alvocidib nmr adequate antioxidant defense mechanisms. It is widely accepted that the practice of healthy, balanced nutrition is beneficial for enhanced athletic performance [12]. To date, numerous studies have attempted to reveal the cost and benefits of the intake of PCI-32765 clinical trial nutritional supplements in athletic performance. However, most of the studies are controversial and further research is needed in order to arrive at a better understanding of how nutrition influences performance. Supplements studied thus far in humans include zinc, dietary fat, plant sterols, antioxidants, glutamine and

carbohydrate. On the one hand, some authors have found that none of these supplements are an effective countermeasure to exercise-induced immune suppression except for carbohydrate beverages [13–15]. On the other hand, it has been suggested that the consumption of antioxidant supplements improves the antioxidant defense system, leading to reduced exercise-induced oxidative stress [16, 17]. While some studies have provided scientifically-based nutritional guidelines for soccer players, few have examined the influence of nutrition on the physiological consequences of playing a soccer match. The aim of this study was thus to determine the effect of macro/micronutrient intake on the antioxidant response, cell damage, and on the inflammatory and immunity responses induced by a physical stresses Erlotinib concentration of the soccer match in high level female soccer players. Methods Subjects Two female soccer teams (n = 28) participated in this study after being informed about the aims, experimental protocol and procedures, and providing informed consent. They played in two categories, one in the First Division and the other team in the Second Division of the Spanish League. Players were 21 ± 6 years old, weighed 61 ± 8.4 kg and their body fat and muscle percentages were 16.7 ± 3.2% and 47 ± 2.6%, respectively (means ± S.D). All players engaged in two hours of training per training day and played one match every weekend.

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