Primary outcome was treatment success of aztreonam monotherapy S

Primary outcome was treatment success of aztreonam monotherapy. Secondary analyses included need for modification to antimicrobial therapy, patients transitioned to aztreonam from another empiric regimen, and patients receiving aztreonam in combination with other antibacterial agents.

ResultsIn patients prescribed aztreonam for first fever, 11 of 27 (40.7%) patients who received aztreonam alone and 19 of 40 (47.5%) given

aztreonam plus another antibiotic responded within 96h (P=0.62). Twenty-four (89%) patients prescribed aztreonam monotherapy were alive when FN resolved or treatment ended. Infectious mortality was low (1 patient, 3.7%). In patients prescribed aztreonam monotherapy following an adverse reaction to cefepime, 6 of 11 (54.5%) responded within 96h of initiating aztreonam; 10 (91%) were alive when FN resolved or treatment ended.

ConclusionAztreonam monotherapy find more may be acceptable for use in patients with a history of beta-lactam hypersensitivity or following an adverse reaction with another beta-lactam. Further

studies are needed to compare efficacy of aztreonam monotherapy with other therapies for the treatment of FN.”
“SETTING: Two towns in Campo de Gibraltar, southern Spain, with a small foreign population and higher tuberculosis (TB) incidence and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence than the national average.

OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between HIV-TB and P005091 Ubiquitin inhibitor non-HIV-TB incidence

and social deprivation and other potential individual and contextual determinants.

METHODS: In a cross-sectional longitudinal study, individual TB case variables were identified from three sources-routine surveillance, laboratory and hospital discharge records-from 1997 to 2007. Community variables were obtained at the census tract level. A deprivation index was calculated based on percentages of unemployment, low educational level and unskilled labour. Multilevel Poisson models were estimated for TB incidence rates for patients with and without HIV.

RESULTS: A total of 490 TB cases were included. Sex and age at individual level and deprivation and residence in the port area at census tract level were associated both with HIV-related TB and with non-HIV-TB. Household crowding contextual variables were also associated with HIV-related TB incidence. Full models account for 78.9% and 51.7% reductions in second-level variance.

CONCLUSION: Socio-economic deprivation is associated with higher rates of HIV-TB and non-HIV-TB. Diverse individual and contextual potential risk factors suggest different pathways of transmission. It is necessary to extend the framework for intervention beyond individual-based strategies to the socio-economic contexts in which people live.”
“We identified 22 cases of influenza infection among renal transplant recipients and matched them with 66 controls by influenza season to explore risk factors for influenza infection.

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