Likewise, in the study by Dorsay and Orange [12] who reviewed ret

Likewise, in the study by Dorsay and Orange [12] who reviewed retrospectively a group of 24 children with THI, as much as twenty patients carried at least one atopic diagnosis despite elevated IgE levels in 7 patients. These findings are supported by other authors’ opinions that patients with hypogammaglobulinemia and concomitant allergic diseases may show poor correlation between clinical symptoms and results of serum total and allergen-specific IgE tests [13], [14] and [15]. Therefore, serum IgE levels cannot be considered as suitable diagnostic criteria for allergic disease in patients with defective antibody

synthesis. Interestingly, an early onset of clinical manifestations of food allergy that in 16 of 17 children falls on the first Dabrafenib molecular weight 6 months and in 12 children even on the first 3 months of life supports the initial Selleckchem Proteasome inhibitor hypothesis that hypogammaglobulinemia, among others genetic and environmental factors, may substantially contribute to the development of food allergy in children. The first symptoms of allergic disease are thus present in infants in parallel to the breakdown of protective maternal transplacentally obtained IgG antibodies and resulting hypogammaglobulinemia. In these considerations on reciprocal pathomechanisms of low serum immunoglobulin levels and breakdown of tolerance to alimentary antigens one should also take into account the protein loss through the inflamed gastrointestinal mucosa and the enteropathy Vildagliptin secondary to food allergy

as the primary cause of hypogammaglobulinemia [16], [17] and [18]. As the immune competence later in life is affected by the ability to

mount an appropriate immune response upon infection as well as to develop tolerogenic immune mechanisms, the immunomodulatory role of breastfeeding in shaping the immune maturation must be stressed [19] and [20]. This study has several limitations, namely a relatively small study group and its retrospective character that does not enable to define either prognosis in terms of hypogammaglobulinemia or the outcome of food allergy. The natural history of early allergy to milk, egg, wheat and soy is generally associated with development of spontaneous clinical tolerance in food-allergic individuals [10], but there is a lack of one universal parameter that might enable to predict the spontaneous immunocorrection and resolution or progression of allergy. These issues might be the subject of further case-controlled prospective studies. Antibody production defects in infants and young children may be associated with health problems beyond just hypogammaglobulinemia, but pose the increased risk of allergy to alimentary antigens. Symptomatology of food allergy correlates better with serum IgG and IgA deficiency than laboratory markers of atopy. Dysregulation of the immune response contributing to defective antigen elimination in predisposed immunodeficient individuals might be considered as a critical risk factor accompanying development of allergy.

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