From patients with metastatic disease undergoing palliative surgery, core biopsies of the primary tumour and of liver (LM)/peritoneal (PM) metastases were taken and processed in a similar way. Haematoxylin-Eosin (H&E) staining was performed Crenigacestat purchase on each sample for histopathological confirmation according to the World Health Organization criteria. The study was approved by the KU Leuven ethical committee prior to patient recruitment, and received the study number ML3452. Clinical and histopathological data from all patients were registered in a prospective database. Disease
recurrence was defined as local or distant recurrence, diagnosed on follow-up imaging, performed routinely or because of elevated serum tumour selleck markers. Classification of PDAC with good or bad outcome One hundred fifty-five patients suffering from PDAC were operated with curative intent. Postoperative follow-up was complete and closed in December 2011. Survival curves were determined using the Kaplan-Meier life-table technique. The median overall (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) was respectively
22.3 months (95% confidence interval (CI) 18.7-29.0 m) and 12.0 months (CI: 9.0-13.3 m). None of these patients received pre-operative or neo-adjuvant treatment. Postoperative chemotherapy (n = 69) or chemoradiation (n = 29) did not influence Compound Library order OS or DFS in this patient group. Based on cumulative OS and DFS probability plots (Figure 1A), we Quinapyramine defined two patient subgroups: one group with an exceptional good outcome (defined as ‘Good’: OS and DFS > 50 months, n = 17), and one group with an exceptional poor outcome (defined as ‘Bad’: OS < 19.5 months and DFS < 7 months, n = 47) (Figure 1B). Figure 1 Classification of PDAC patients
based on outcome data. (A) Cumulative curve for overall survival (OS, left) and disease-free survival (DFS, right), based on survival data of all PDAC patients with representative snap-frozen material. (B) Kaplan-Meier overall survival curve of patients respectively from the ‘Good’ (blue) and ‘Bad’ (green) outcome group, in comparison with the non-classified patients (red). Whole-genome expression analysis Only representative snap-frozen PDAC material- defined as a minimum of 30% cancer cells on H&E staining – was used for RNA extraction. In order not to exclude tumour microenvironment for gene expression analysis, samples were used without microdissection. Total RNA was extracted using Trizol (Invitrogen, Grand Island, NY) and the RNeasy mini kit (Qiagen, Venlo, The Netherlands) according to the manufacturer’s guidelines. RNA concentration and purity were determined spectrophotometrically using the Nanodrop ND-1000 (Nanodrop Technologies, Wilmington, DE) and RNA integrity was assessed using a Bioanalyser 2100 (Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, CA).