“Diabetic Subjects exhibit low levels of nitric oxide (NO)

“Diabetic Subjects exhibit low levels of nitric oxide (NO), its precursor EPZ-6438 mouse L-arginine, and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in tissues like endothelium and kidney. In view of this, we speculated that gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction in diabetes could be related to similar changes in NO turnover in GI tissues. Hence the studies were carried out in rats after eight weeks of streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia, wherein the GI functions were assessed in terms of gastric emptying and intestinal transit using barium sulfate semisolid

test meal, and the levels of L-arginine and NO in pylorus and ileum were estimated, respectively, by HPLC and amperometry. The results revealed that diabetic group exhibited significant delay in gastric emptying and intestinal transit, and the pylorus and ileum tissues had significantly low levels of NO and L-arginine. Daily treatment of non-diabetic rats with NOS inhibitor [N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (10 mg/kg/day, p.o.)] for eight weeks produced similar delay in gastric emptying and intestinal transit with associated

LGX818 in vitro low levels of NO in GI tissues. Daily supplementation of L-arginine (100 mg/kg, p.o.) for eight weeks to diabetic and NOS inhibitor treated non-diabetic group was found to restore the gastric emptying and intestinal transit and improved the levels of NO in GI tissues. The findings indicate that diabetes-induced L-arginine deficiency and consequent low levels of NO in GI tissues could be possible cause for the GI dysfunction,

and L-arginine supplementation can prevent the same. However, extensive clinical investigations are necessary to recommend the use of L-arginine for the treatment of GI dysfunctions in diabetes. (C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Background. It is unclear if physical activity (PA) can prevent or reverse frailty. We examined different doses and types of PA and their association with the onset and severity of frailty.

Methods. Health, Aging and Body Composition (Health ABC) study participants (N = 2,964) were followed for 5 years, with frailty defined as a gait speed of less than 0.60 m/s Flavopiridol (Alvocidib) and/or inability to rise from a chair without using one’s arms. Individuals with one impairment were considered moderately frail and those with both severely frail. We examined PA doses of volume and intensity, activity types (eg, lifestyle vs exercise activities), and their associations with incident frailty and transition to severe frailty in those who became frail.

Results. Adjusted models indicated that sedentary individuals had significantly increased odds of developing frailty compared with the exercise active group (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.45; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04-2.01), whereas the lifestyle active did not. Number of diagnoses was the strongest predictor of incident frailty.

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