Traumatic brain injury, malignant stroke, tumor, diffuse hypoxic–

Traumatic brain injury, malignant stroke, tumor, diffuse hypoxic–ischemic brain damage are supposed to be the main causes of BD. All these factors affect the brain and lead to brain edema and swelling, intracranial pressure increase, gradual reduction of cerebral perfusion pressure, decrease and termination of intracranial blood flow and necrosis of brain parenchyma up to 2nd cervical segment [1], [2] and [3]. According to the Russian Metformin in vitro National Guidelines of BD there are Diagnostic criteria for clinical diagnosis of BD [4]: 1. Defined cause irreversible deep coma. In general, these criteria correspond to neurologic criteria for the diagnosis

of brain death of American Academy of Neurology [2] and [5]. The following two confirmatory tests are approved for BD diagnosis in Russia: 1. Electroencephalography (EEG) – reveals no electrical activity of brain in BD patients. Angiography is believed to reduce the observational period only and does not substitute to any clinical criteria of BD. According to the Russian National Guidelines on Diagnostics of Brain Death, ultrasound confirmatory tests are being Crizotinib investigated and can not be recommended for BD diagnosis, at the same time, all over the world ultrasound tests are the 3rd in order of sensitivity and frequency for BD diagnostics [6] and [7]. Transcranial Doppler (TCD) is notably desirable in patients

in whom specific components of clinical testing cannot PTK6 be reliably performed or evaluated such as barbiturate brain protection, hypothermia or face trauma [8], [9] and [10]. Our

department has gained experience in ultrasonography in clinical and confirmatory tests, 438 cases of BD were diagnosed since January 1995 to December 2010 [11]. The diagnosis of BD was confirmed by TCD and EEG. Color duplex sonography (CDS) was started to be performed in 2009. We initiated a prospective observational study of the extra- and intracranial artery CDS in BD diagnostics in 2009. 20 patients with BD have been enrolled in the study up to December 2010. The study was approved by Local Ethic Committee of Moscow State University for Medicine and Dentistry in 2008. The aim of the study was – to investigate whether CDS of both extra- and intracranial arteries increases sensitivity of the test in patients with BD compared with CDS of intracranial arteries alone; The study was started in Moscow hospital intensive care units in 2009 and has still been going on. 20 patients with BD due to traumatic brain injury and intracranial hemorrhage were included in the study and underwent a sonographic study which included color duplex sonography (CDS) of extracranial and intracranial arteries. BD was diagnosed according to the Russian National Guidelines of BD. The average age of patients was 25 ± 5.4 years. The average time from ICU admission to BD development was 27 ± 6.5 h. The diagnosis of traumatic brain injury and intracranial hemorrhage was detected by computer tomography at the admission.

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