The inflammatory reaction is an important component of MS physiop

The inflammatory reaction is an important component of MS physiopathology and the conventional treatments aims at reducing it in order to cure or postpone

course disease [132, 133]. Two types of MS can be identified: primary LY3023414 datasheet progressive MS (PPMS), generally resistant to treatment and without amelioration, and secondary progressive MS (SPMS) with episodic relapse and improvement [134]. As gold standard therapy efficiently delays MS progression for many years, AHSCT have been performed on patients who do not respond to conventional therapies, and consequently the results have not been encouraging and, in several cases, they have taken a turn for the worse [135]. Furthermore, graft exposes patients to infection risks, localized toxicity or autoimmune diseases [136, 137]. However, it has been reported a reduction of CNS inflammation with

a stabilization of the disease in patients aged less than 40 years [136]. A plastic conversion of HSC-derived cells, to replace damage neurons, has been hypothesized [138]. Systemic sclerosis Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a multisystem, rare disorder characterized by cutaneous and visceral (pulmonary, cardiac, gastrointestinal and renal) fibrosis as a consequence of T cell activation, autoantibody production, cytokine secretion and excessive collagen deposition. Patients with the diffuse variant, who have extensive skin and early visceral involvement, have a poor outcome with a 5-year mortality which is estimated at 40-50% in 5 years [139]. The therapy for the SSc is far from being perfect. At present, the OSI-027 molecular weight best results are obtained with the combination of cyclophosphamide (CY) and angiotensin [140]. It has been demonstrated that AHSCT improves the skin flexibility and stabilizes the pulmonary involvement [141–146]. Farge et al. have compared two studies with conflicting results. The first describes a long time remission rate

of 80% (partial or complete) on 57 patients, and the majority of the subjects have presented a general improvement of pre-AHSCT clinical condition. The second study, instead, shows a higher reactivation rate (50%). Interestingly, AHSCT can extend the short life expectancy Celastrol of patients with severe SS [147]. Ultimately, priming regimens, i.e. a disease progression and transplant procedure, that is transplanted-related complication, have been associated to high mortality rates (27%) [143]. Crohn’s disease It is an incompletely known autoimmune disease characterized by the gastrointestinal loss of immune tolerance caused by overactive T-helper 1 response. The environmental agents and genetic factors are also involved. Sometimes the disease can be controlled by immunosuppressive drugs, antibodies and surgical intervention [148]. AHSCT has proved safe and can be able to induce and maintain remission in previously refractory patients affected by Crohn’s disease [149, 150].

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