Stability of fraction B cytotoxin to protease digestion and heat treatment Pool B was used for further analysis as it contained the highest level of cytotoxic activity. To further characterise the toxin and confirm that it is a protein, we examined the effect of protease digestion on cytotoxin activity. Incubation with trypsin reduced the toxicity of the partially purified cytotoxin for CHO cells (Figure 3). This finding likely reflects that the cytotoxic component of the preparation is a protein. The partially purified cytotoxin was subjected to incubation at elevated AZD6244 concentration temperatures and the observed cytotoxic activity was compared with the unincubated control samples (22°C) and we found
that activity was unaffected at 50°C, but was reduced at higher temperatures (90% active at 60°C and 70% active at 70°C) suggesting that the cytotoxin is relatively heat- stable (data not shown). Figure 3 Stability of cytotoxic activity of pool B to trypsin digestion. Pool B (2 μg/ml) was treated with and without 125 μg/ml trypsin. The samples were then incubated with CHO cells overnight. Percent CHO cell death was determined using the MTT assay. Experiment was performed
in triplicate, error bars represent standard error of mean (n = 3). Cytotoxin activity confirmation in vivo To further confirm that the activity isolated in pool B was due to the cytotoxin, the rabbit ileal loop assay was employed to detect the presence of diarrhoeagenic activity. The positive E. coli control induced Fosbretabulin purchase a large amount of fluid (mean volume [ml] to length of loop [cm] ratio was 2.0), C. jejuni C31 whole cell lysate and the pool B fraction induced moderate amounts of fluid (mean volume/length ratio was 0.4 for C31 lysate and 0.8 for pool B fraction). The negative
control, Sorensen’s buffer, and fractions A and C did not induce any fluid secretion. On histopathology, the intestinal loops injected with the pool B fraction or C. jejuni C31 whole lysate LGX818 cost showed oedema, congestion, haemorrhagic necrosis and inflammation of the mucosa (Figure 4A), Megestrol Acetate whereas the loops injected with Sorenson’s buffer and fractions A and C appeared normal (Figure 4B). The fluid accumulation and mucosal changes are similar to the findings of a previous study using C. jejuni isolates from patients with inflammatory diarrhoea . This shows that fluid secretion and mucosal inflammatory changes are mediated by the cytotoxic pool B. Previous studies with crude lysate of C31 showed fluid accumulation in the rabbit ileal loop assay . Figure 4 Histopathology of the adult rabbit intestinal loops inoculated with pool B fraction. In panel A, the loop was injected with pool B fraction and stained with eosin and haematoxylin. The mucosa shows oedema, inflammation and necrosis. In panel B, the loop was injected with Sorenson’s buffer (negative control) and stained with eosin and haematoxylin. The mucosa appears normal. (Magnification x 50 for both sections).