One of the Ti meshes is anodized to in situ synthesize the self-organized TiO(2) nanotube layer as the photoanode materials. Another Ti mesh is platinized through electrodeposition as the counter electrode. The morphologies of the electrodes are characterized by scanning electron microscopy. We investigate the effect of the mesh number on the 3D DSSCs with the dye adsorption, cyclic voltammetry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results show that with the increase in the mesh number, the dye-loadings on the photoanode Dinaciclib mouse and the active surface area of Pt on the counter electrode
are increased, while the diffusion of the electrolyte becomes more difficult selleck chemicals llc due to the reduced diameter of the openings in the mesh. It has
also been demonstrated that the performance of this 3D DSSC is independent of the incident solar beam angle due to its axial symmetrical structure. In the I-V measurement, the 3D DSSC based on the 90-mesh photoanode and the 120-mesh counter electrode shows the highest conversion efficiency of 5.5% under standard AM 1.5 sunlight. The problems of electrical insulator layer are discussed and further investigation is expected. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3486222]“
“In this article, we propose a new modification method for obtaining porous silk fibers with excellent wet elastic resilience and flexibility. Bombyx mori silks were modified by calcium-salt treatment and subsequent epoxy crosslinking with glycerin triglycidyl ether. The effects of temperature, time, and catalyst (sodium carbonate) on the crosslinking reaction of the silk fibers were investigated,
and the best conditions of reaction were determined as a temperature of 120 degrees Tariquidar C, a crosslinking agent concentration of 7%, and immersion for 1 h with 2% Na(2)CO(3) solution before the crosslinking reaction. The change in the structure and the physical properties of the silk fibers after calcium-salt treatment and epoxy crosslinking was studied. Separating behavior of the microfibers occurred on the surface of the silk fiber after calcium-salt treatment, and a porous structure formed in the interior of the silk. This porous structure of the silk was enlarged by subsequent epoxy crosslinking, and accordingly, the moisture conduction of the silk fibers improved remarkably. The breaking strength, breaking elongation, and wet elastic resilience of the silk fibers increased evidently after modification, and the modified silks exhibited a better flexibility. The conformation of silk fibroin fibers changed from beta sheet to random coil after calcium-salt treatment, whereas the beta-sheet content in the silk fibers increased after subsequent epoxy crosslinking.