mellifera, rp49 (GenBank accession number AF441189) ( Lourenço et

mellifera, rp49 (GenBank accession number AF441189) ( Lourenço et al., 2008). The primers used for amplification of this internal control were: forward 5′-CGT CAT ATG TTG

CCA ACT GGT-3′ and reverse 5′-TTG AGC ACG TTC AAC AAT GG-3′. Each run was followed by a melting curve analysis to confirm the specificity of amplification and absence of primer dimers. The relative quantification of transcript levels was calculated using the Ct method as described in Lourenço et al. (2009). To check reproducibility, each SYBR green assay was done in triplicate and repeated GDC-0068 manufacturer with three independent samples. Expression of vasa (GenBank accession number GB14804) was analyzed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Amplifications were carried out using 1 μl (10 pmol) of specific primers (forward 5′-GAG GAA AGT TGT CTG CTG G-3′ and reverse 5′-CTC GGA TAA GAA AAC GGC-3′), 1 μl of cDNA, 10 μl of Master Mix PCR (2.5×) (Eppendorf) and 12 μl of water. PCR conditions were 94 °C for 2 min followed by 35 cycles of 94 °C for 30 s, 55 °C for 30 s, 72 °C for 30 s and a final Natural Product Library clinical trial extension step at 72 °C for 7 min. As an endogenous control we used the A. mellifera rp49 gene. Amplification conditions were 94 °C for 2 min followed by 27 cycles of 94 °C for 30 s, 60 °C for 30 s, 72 °C for 30 s with a final extension step at 72 °C for 7 min. The number of cycles was carefully tested to avoid saturation. The amplification products were analyzed

by electrophoresis in 1% agarose gels containing ethidium bromide, and quantified using Kodak 1D Image Analysis program, version 3.6.2 (Eastman Kodak Co.). Hemolymph was rapidly collected using glass microcapillaries and kept at −20 °C until the use. Aliquots of 1 μl hemolymph were analyzed by SDS–PAGE. Electrophoresis was carried out at 15 mA, according to Laemmli (1970), using 7.5% polyacrylamide gels (100 × 120 × 0.9 mm). Acyl CoA dehydrogenase Gels were stained with 1% Coomassie Brillant Blue dissolved in a solution of glacial acetic acid, ethanol and water (1:5:5 v/v) that was also used for gel destaining. Data on transcript quantification and the mean volumes of diet

consumed per bee were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and the Holm–Sidak test for post hoc comparisons. When the assumptions of normality for ANOVA were not fulfilled, the analyses were done using the Kruskal–Wallis and Student–Neuman–Keuls test for post hoc comparison. The Chi-square test was used for the proportions of workers with activated and non-activated ovaries. Survival analysis was done by a Kaplan–Meier log-rank test with Holm–Sidak post hoc testing for multiple comparisons. Analyses were performed with Jandel SigmaStat 3.1 software (Jandel Corporation, USA). We analyzed the expression of genes encoding storage proteins (vg, hex 70a, apoLp-III and apoLp-II/I) and encoding the Vg (vgR) and ApoLp (apoLpR) receptors in A. mellifera workers fed different diets (beebread, royal jelly or syrup) and infected with S. marcescens.

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