It is unclear how the host cell environments influence the Ehrlic

It is unclear how the host cell environments influence the Ehrlichia gene expression. Promoter analysis of these differentially expressed genes will be valuable for gaining insights about how differential expression is achieved by E. chaffeensis in vertebrate and tick host environments. Promoter characterization in vivo for E. chaffeensis is not feasible at this time because genetic manipulation systems are yet to be established. Alternatively, characterization of E. chaffeensis promoters may be performed in E. coli or with E. coli RNA polymerase as reported for several C. trachomatis

genes [23–30]. To validate the use of E. coli for mapping the promoters of E. chaffeensis genes,in vitro transcription assays were performed for p28-Omp 14 and 19 promoter regions with E. coli RNA polymerase by following methods reported for Chlamydia species [28–30]. Rabusertib supplier CX-6258 concentration selleckchem Predicted in vitro transcripts, as estimated from transcription start sites mapped by primer extension described previously, were detected only when p28-Omp 14 and 19 complete upstream sequences were ligated to a segment of lacZ coding sequence (Figure 4). In vitro transcripts were absent in the reactions that contained the complete gene 14 and 19 promoter regions ligated in reverse orientation

(Figure 4). Figure 4 In vitro transcription analysis. In vitro transcription analysis was performed for the complete upstream sequences of genes 14 and 19 in forward and reverse orientations ligated to a partial lacZ gene segment (301 bp) (solid black boxes). The orientation of ligated promoter regions is shown by arrowhead lines (right arrowhead line, forward orientation; left arrowhead line, reverse orientation). Wiggled arrowhead lines show predicted transcripts

of 335 bases for gene 14 and 327 bases for gene 19. Sequence segments and the predicted transcripts for genes 14 and 19 are shown as cartoons on the left, and the observed transcripts are shown on the right of the panels. Puc18 plasmid DNA was used as the template to generate a sequence ladder with an M13 forward primer. Numbers 1 and 2 refer to the constructs for in vitro transcription for gene 14, and 3 and 4 refer to in vitro transcription templates for gene 19. Upstream sequences for p28-Omp genes 14 or 19 were Methisazone subsequently evaluated in E. coli. Transformants of E. coli containing promoter regions of genes 14 and 19 cloned in front of the promoterless green fluorescent protein (GFP) coding sequence in the pPROBE-NT plasmid were positive for green fluorescence as visualized by the presence of green color colonies (Figure 5A). E. coli transformed with pPROBE-NT plasmids alone were negative for the green fluorescence. The GFP expression was verified by Western blot analysis with GFP-specific polyclonal sera (not shown). Promoter activities for upstream sequences of genes 14 and 19 were further confirmed by another independent method (i.e.

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