It features GW-572016 the typical carotenoid triplet ESA in the 475–550 nm region as well as a bleach/band shift-like signal in the Pc Q region. Thus, the carotenoid triplet state rises directly upon decay of the singlet excited state of Pc. This observation implies that triplet–triplet energy transfer from Pc to the carotenoid PF-3084014 clinical trial occurs much faster than the inter system crossing (ISC) process in Pc, which effectively occurs in 2 ns. Figure 3c shows the kinetic trace recorded at 680 nm (lower panel) and at 560 nm (upper panel), corresponding to the maximum of the Pc Q absorption and the maximum of carotenoid S1 excited state
absorption. At 680 nm, the ultrafast rise of the bleach Vorinostat nmr corresponding to the carotenoid S2 → Pc energy transfer (40 fs) is followed by two slower
rise corresponding to hot S1 and/or S* → Pc (500–900 fs) and S1 → Pc energy transfer (8 ps). At 560 nm, the carotenoid S1 signal decays in 8 ps and matches the 8 ps rise of the Pc bleach. The energy transfer pathways in dyad 1 are summarized with the kinetic scheme in Fig. 3d. Note that this scheme is simplified; a full account of the kinetic modeling of energy transfer pathways in dyad 1 along with the SADS of the involved molecular species is given in Berera et al. (2007). The carotenoid to Pc energy transfer dynamics in dyad 1 is reminiscent of several natural light-harvesting antennas where high energy transfer efficiency from
carotenoids to chlorophylls is obtained; this occurs by transfer of energy to Chl from multiple excited states of the carotenoid (Holt et al. 2004; Kennis et al. 2001; Papagiannakis et al. 2002; Polivka and Sundström 2004; Ritz et al. 2000; Walla et al. 2000, 2002; Wehling and Walla 2005; Zhang et al. 2000; Zigmantas et al. 2002). Example 2: carotenoids in non-photochemical quenching in photosystem II and artificial systems When exposed to high light illumination, oxygenic photosynthetic Phloretin organisms protect themselves by switching to a protective mode where the excess energy in photosystem II (PSII) is dissipated as heat through a mechanism known as non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) (Demmig-Adams et al. 2006; Horton et al. 1996; Müller et al. 2001). The mechanism of energy dissipation in the PSII antenna has long remained elusive but over the last years, significant progress has been made in resolving its molecular basis. In particular, the involvement of carotenoids in the quenching of Chl singlet excited states has clearly been demonstrated. Yet, controversy persists on whether the quenching process(es) involve energy or electron transfer processes among Chls and carotenoids, and which particular Chl and carotenoid pigments constitute the quenching site (Ahn et al. 2008; Berera et al. 2006; Holt et al. 2005; Ma et al. 2003; Ruban et al. 2007).