In the parasternal long-axis views, LA maximum anterior-posterior

In the parasternal long-axis views, LA maximum anterior-posterior (A-P) diameter was measured. In the apical 4-chamber view, LV end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were measured and LV ejection fraction was calculated by the Simpson method. In the same view, LA superior-inferior (S-I) diameter was measured from the mitral annular plane to the posterior wall of the LA, and velocity time intergral of A wave (VTIA) was measured. Pulsed-wave Doppler at the tip of mitral valve leaflets allowed us to measure Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the early (E) and late (A) diastolic filling velocities, E/A ratio, and

E deceleration time. The LV tissue velocity (e’, a’, s’) were measured by tissue Doppler imaging of the medial mitral annulus and E/e’ Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical was calculated.

From the apical 4- and 2-chamber view, the following LA volumes were measured using a biplane area-length method, and were indexed to body surface area: maximum volume (before mitral valve opening), pre-A volume (before SB590885 nmr atrial contraction), and minimum volume (after atrial contraction). LA reservoir function was estimated by the LA expansion index (%), computed as [(LA maximum volume - minimum volume) / minimum volume] × 100%. LA contractile function was estimated by the LA active emptying fraction (%), computed as [(LA pre-A volume - minimum volume) / pre-A volume] Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical × 100%. LA ejection force ( Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical was calculated according to the modified Manning method as (0.5 × ρ × LA active emptying volume index × A2) / VTIA, where ρ is blood density of 1.06 g/cm3, A is peak late diastolic transmitral flow velocity (cm/sec), and VTIA is late diastolic transmitral flow velocity time integral (cm).12) LA kinetic energy (kdynes/m2) was defined as 0.5 × ρ × LA active emptying volume index × A2. The global systolic LA myocardial strain was measured by 2-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography.8) Gray scale image of apical 4-chamber

views was obtained with the frame rates of 50-80 Hz. Recordings were processed Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical with acoustictracking software (EchoPAC, GE Healthcare, Horten, Norway), allowing off-line semi-automated speckle-based strain analyses. Briefly, the lines were manually traced, along the LA endocardium at the Cell press time of end-systolic phase. An additional epicardial line was automatically generated by software, which created a region of interest (ROI). After manually adjusting the ROI shape, the global peak LA strain during the whole cardiac cycle was calculated.13),14) In this study, to derive a noninvasive dimensionless parameter, the ratio of E/e’ to LA peak strain was used to estimate the LA stiffness (Stiffnessstrain).7),8) We also estimated LA stiffness as the ratio of E/e’ to LA filling volume (Stiffnessvol). Statistical analyses Continuous variables are expressed as the means and standard deviations; categorical variables are expressed as proportions.

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