Clearly, other parameters may influence the cell death modalities

Clearly, other parameters may influence the cell death modalities induced by nanomaterials, such as the dose or the time of exposure. Depending on the concentration, nano-C60 fullerene caused ROS-mediated CHIR99021 FDA necrosis (high dose), or ROS-independent autophagy (low dose) in rat and human glioma cell cultures [137]. The type of cell death induced by silver ions (Ag+) and silver nanoparticle coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone

Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical were also dependent on the dose and the exposure time, with Ag+ being the most toxic in a human monocytic cell line [138]. The silver nanoparticles concentrations required to selleck products elicit apoptosis were found to be much lower than the concentrations required for necrosis in human fibrosarcoma, skin, and testicular embryonal carcinoma cells [139, 140]. In conclusion, although the reports are

often contradictory, the cell death appears roughly cell type, material composition, and concentration dependent. For instance, it has been reported that TiO2 (5–10nm), Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical SiO2 (30nm), and MWCNTs (with different size: <8nm, 20–30nm, and >50nm, but same length 0.5–2μm) induce cell-specific responses resulting in variable toxicity and subsequent cell Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical fate in mouse fibroblasts and macrophages as well as telomerase-immortalized human bronchiolar epithelial cells. Precisely, the macrophages were very susceptible to nanomaterial toxicity, while fibroblasts are more resistant at all the treatments, whereas only the exposure of SiO2 and MWCNT (<8nm) induce apoptosis in human bronchiolar epithelial cells. In the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical experimental conditions of this study, the investigated nanomaterials did not trigger necrosis [65]. In the same mouse macrophage cell line, it has been demonstrated that MWCNT (10–25nm) and SWCNTs (1.2–1.5nm)

induced necrosis in a concentration-dependent manner [141]. CNTs have been demonstrated to induce both necrosis and apoptosis in human fibroblasts [142]. In contrast, Cui and co-workers found that SWNTs upregulate apoptosis-associated genes in human embryo kidney cells [143], and Zhu and colleagues showed that MWCNTs induce apoptosis Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in mouse embryonic stem cells [144], while Pulskamp and collaborators assert that commercial CNTs do not induce necrosis or apoptosis in rat macrophages [145]. Recently, a multilevel Anacetrapib approach, including different toxicity tests and gene-expression determinations, was used to evaluate the toxicity of two lanthanide-based luminescent nanoparticles, complexes with the chelating agent EDTA. The study revealed that these nanomaterials induced necrosis in human lymphoblasts and erythromyeloblastoid leukemia cell lines, while no toxicity was observed in human breast cancer cell line. Moreover, no in vivo effects have been observed. The comparative analysis of the nanomaterials and their separated components showed that the toxicity was mainly due to the presence of EDTA [146].

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