1) and in vivo ( Fig 2) We selected rabbits as the subject anim

1) and in vivo ( Fig. 2). We selected rabbits as the subject animals for testing the safety of PFCs because they are known to have high sensitivity to the effects of i.v. injection of PFCs [9]. The experimental animal protocol was approved by the animal research committees of Jikei University School of Medicine (Tokyo, Japan). Twenty male Japanese white rabbits (2.59 ± 0.14 kg) were divided into three groups: the Control group (n = 6), 2.2 mL/kg of physiological saline i.v. into the auricular vein; the PL

group (n = 8), 25 mg/kg of phospholipid-coated SPNs i.v.; and the AA group (n = 6), 25 mg/kg of SPNs coated with poly aspartic acid derivative i.v. The administered dosage was determined in a previous investigation of rabbit VX tumors in which 30 mg/kg of phospholipid-coated SPNs see more was injected i.v., Histone Methyltransferase inhibitor revealing

severe respiratory side effects in three of seven rabbits, including two animals that did not survive. In the present study, saline and SPNs were injected i.v. via a 22-G catheter (Angiocath, BD Japan, Fukushima, Japan). Anesthesia was maintained by i.m. injection of midazolam (0.04 mg/kg) and medetomidine (0.08 mg/kg). In a clinical study, Krafft et al. reported that flu-like symptoms with light fever and myalgia had occurred when PFC was excreted from the respiratory

system into the air [10]. Thiamine-diphosphate kinase In our study, animals were placed on a temperature-controlled plate and their homeostatic thermal condition was maintained by measuring rectal temperature (mean ± standard deviation = 39.08 ± 0.98 °C) with a rectal digital thermometer (AW-601H and AW-650H; Nihon Koden, Tokyo, Japan). Animals were supplied pure oxygen via a face mask (1 L/min). Measured parameters included arterial blood pressure (ABP) by cuff and SpO2 with pulse rate (PR) by pulse oximeter (BSM-2301; Nihon Koden). Animals awakened spontaneously and were returned to their cages with free access to water and food on a 12-h light–dark cycle in the animal research facility at Jikei University School of Medicine. Neurological evaluation was performed according to a previous experimental report in which rabbits were injected with PFC, the neurological check points were the occurrence of paresis, convulsion, anisocoria, and nystagmus [9]. Biochemical blood plasma examination including hepatobiliary and renal functions, blood lipid were performed at pre-injection, and 1, 4, and 7 days after injection of SPN. Blood samples were taken from the auricular marginal vein.

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