The susceptibility and tolerance to β-lactams of nonpolar
deletion mutants in the three selected genes was examined. It was revealed that Fri is a mediator of tolerance SB202190 in vitro to penicillin G and ampicillin, as well as of resistance to some cephalosporins, including cefalotin and cephradine. The identification of a locus that contributes to tolerance to β-lactams used in the treatment of listeriosis and that is relevant to the innate resistance of L. monocytogenes to cephalosporins is notable in light of the clinical use of these antibiotics. Results Screening of L. monocytogenes genomic libraries for penicillin G-Ro 61-8048 inducible promoters Genomic DNA of L. monocytogenes was fragmented using four different procedures and the obtained chromosomal fragments were cloned upstream of the promoterless hly gene in vector pAT28-hly. This vector has previously been used to identify constitutive as well as inducible promoters of L. monocytogenes. It was chosen for the identification of penicillin
G-inducible promoters because the plasmid is present in L. monocytogenes at high copy number, which permits the selection of even relatively weak promoters driving hly expression. Penicillin G was selected for this study because it is widely used as the antibiotic of choice for the treatment of listerial infections . The four genomic libraries were introduced into L. monocytogenes this website EGDΔhly by electroporation and transformed strains in which putative promoters Protein kinase N1 were trapped upstream of hly, were identified by the creation of hemolytic zones on blood agar plates. To determine whether expression was induced by penicillin G, the strains were replica plated on blood agar plates with or without this antibiotic. Penicillin G was used at a concentration (0.03 μg/ml) that permitted the growth of L. monocytogenes EGD even under prolonged incubation, but which exerted a deleterious effect on the bacteria, as evidenced by a reduced growth rate and lower cell number compared with cultures without the antibiotic. Strains producing larger hemolytic zones on blood agar plates supplemented with penicillin G were identified.
Inducible expression of the promoter-hly fusions in the selected strains in response to the addition of penicillin G was further quantified using a hemolytic activity assay. In the presence of penicillin G a significant increase in hemolytic activity produced by nine of the selected strains was observed (Table 1). Table 1 Expression of promoter- hly fusions in response to the addition of penicillin G as determined by a hemolytic activity assay Hemolytic activity a Strain 15 b 18 b 37 c 41 b 195 d 198 c 199 c 201 c 203 d K 10.2 ± 2.6 8.7 ± 1.6 13.2 ± 3.8 20.7 ± 2.5 30.8 ± 1.2 20.3 ± 1.4 12.2 ± 0.6 21.5 ± 1.3 19.6 ± 1.1 PenG 20.4 ± 1.9** 13.3 ± 0.3* 32.5 ± 4.5** 36.1 ± 1.9** 54.8 ± 1.8 ** 29.5 ± 1.7* 33.9 ± 1.6** 28.5 ± 1.7** 55.5 ± 3.