However, there is mounting
evidence that a number of kidney allografts fail as a consequence of a rejection caused by antibodies specifically directed against major histocompatibility complex antigens, class I or II, of the recipient. A critical role in antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) is played by complement. A number of therapeutic attempts have been tried to prevent or treat AMR. The still open question is whether the antibodies we detect are those responsible for tissue damage or not.”
“Objective: Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) are ubiquitous membrane components that play a functional role in maintaining chondrocyte homeostasis. We investigated the potential role of gangliosides, one of the major components of GSLs, in osteoarthritis (OA) pathogenesis.
Design: selleckchem Both age-associated and instability-induced OA models were generated using GM3 synthase knockout (GM3.5(-/-)) mice. A cartilage degradation model and transiently GM3S-transfected chondrocytes were analyzed to evaluate the function of gangliosides in OA development. The amount Daporinad of each series of GSLs in chondrocytes after IL-1 alpha stimulation was profiled using mass spectrometry (MS).
Results: OA changes in GM3.5(-/-) mice were dramatically enhanced with aging compared
to those in wildtype (WT) mice. GM3.5(-/-) mice showed more severe instability-induced pathologic OA in vivo. Ganglioside deficiency also led to the induction of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 and ADAMTS-5 secretion and chondrocyte apoptosis in vitro. In contrast, transientGM3.5(-/-) transfection of chondrocytes suppressed MMP-13 and ADAMTS-5 expression after interleukin (IL)-1 alpha stimulation. GSL profiling revealed the presence of abundant gangliosides in chondrocytes after IL-1 alpha stimulation.
Conclusion: Gangliosides play a critical role in OA pathogenesis by regulating the expression of MMP-13 and ADAMTS-5 and chondrocyte apoptosis. Based on the obtained results, buy BTSA1 we propose that gangliosides are potential target molecules for the development of novel OA treatments. (C) 2013
Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Home hemodialysis (HHD) has met with alternating fortunes. The present revival of interest is due to lower costs and more frequent/efficient treatments. HHD is underdeveloped, and a marketing approach may help in defining development strategies. The aim of this study was to systematically review the recent literature (2000-2010) according to a marketing approach, defining the potential of HHD according to the classical marketing items: market size, growth rate, profitability, trends, keys for success, needs for structures and distribution channels.
Methods: A Medline search was conducted for 2000-2010.