However, there is an increasing interest in genetic improvement i

However, there is an increasing interest in genetic improvement in commercial stocks, with a growing number of producers implementing selective breeding strategies. High throughput commercial production and mass spawning make it difficult to maintain breeding records; therefore, mostly mass selection is practised. The high fecundity and unequal parental contributions also often lead to increased levels of inbreeding. This study therefore aimed to assess the genetic effects of such breeding practices

TH-302 cost on commercial populations of H.midae. Using microsatellite loci, the genetic properties of a wild, an F1 and an F2 population were estimated and compared. Although there was no significant loss of genetic diversity amongst the cultured populations in comparison with the wild progenitor population, there was low-to-moderate genetic differentiation between populations. Relatedness amongst the F2 population was significant, and the rate of inbreeding was high. The effective population size for the F2 (+/- 50) was also comparatively small with respect to the wild (infinity) and check details F1 (+/- 470) populations. These results suggest that farms need to give caution to breeding practices beyond the first (F1) generation and aim to increase effective population sizes and minimise inbreeding to ensure long-term genetic gain and productivity. This study also

confirms the usefulness of population genetic analyses for commercial breeding and stock management in the absence of extensive pedigree records.”
“To examine the mechanisms contributing to pain genesis in diabetic neuropathy, we investigated epidermal thickness and number of intraepidermal nerve fibers in rat foot pad of the animal model of diabetes type 1 and type 2 in relation to pain-related behavior. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Diabetes type 1 was induced with intraperitoneal

injection of streptozotocin (STZ) and diabetes type 2 was induced with a combination of STZ and high-fat diet. Control group for diabetes type 1 was fed with regular laboratory chow, while control group for diabetes type 2 received buy Androgen Receptor Antagonist high-fat diet. Body weights and blood glucose levels were monitored to confirm induction of diabetes. Pain-related behavior was analyzed using thermal (hot, cold) and mechanical stimuli (von Frey fibers, number of hyperalgesic responses). Two months after induction of diabetes, glabrous skin samples from plantar surface of the both hind paws were collected. Epidermal thickness was evaluated with hematoxylin and eosin staining. Intraepidermal nerve fibers quantification was performed after staining skin with polyclonal antiserum against protein gene product 9.5. We found that induction of diabetes type 1 and type 2 causes significant epidermal thinning and loss of intraepidermal nerve fibers in a rat model, and both changes were more pronounced in diabetes type 1 model.

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