difficile protein similar to the VirR toxin gene regulator of C. perfringens. Comparative phylogenomic analysis of C. difficile strains, by Stabler et al. (2009), showed that the deletion of five specific genes, including CD0590, was characteristic of a toxin A−/B+ subclade of C. difficile strains;
therefore, it may be hypothesized that the protein encoded by CD0590 is in some way important for toxin A production by C. difficile. However, under the conditions of our study, neither toxin A nor toxin B was detected. In a previous study of cell-surface proteins (as distinct from the insoluble proteins reported here) from C. difficile, Wright et al. (2005) identified a total of 11 proteins from a glycine extract of whole cells and a further 42 proteins from a lysozyme digest of their peptidoglycan layer, resulting in a total of 47 uniquely identified proteins. It is to be expected that different experimental selleck chemicals approaches, including sample types and extraction
methods, will lead to the identification of different proteomic data for the same organism. For example, the hypothetical proteins identified by us were distinct from those detected by Lawley et al. (2009) in the C. difficile spore proteome. When we compared data from our current investigation with the previous work of Wright et al. (2005), 20 proteins were common to both studies, 27 were unique to Wright and colleagues and 87 were unique to our work. The larger number of proteins identified by our Dasatinib price bottom-up geLC-MS
approach confirms that this experimental strategy can yield significant and important biological information to further our understanding of a microorganism. An important step towards understanding the function of a protein is the determination of its subcellular localization, and in recent years, a number of bioinformatic tools have been developed to assist with this (Emanuelsson et al., 2007). Knowledge of Gram-positive bacterial protein targeting/secretion is essentially restricted to the model organism Bacillus subtlis (Tjalsma et al., 2000, 2004), and indeed, Desvaux et al. (2005) state that protein secretion by clostridia in general is ‘poorly understood’. As the insoluble proteome might be expected to contain proteins associated with, or targeted to, either the cell membrane or the extracellular DNA Synthesis inhibitor milieu, and that could thus play a role in virulence, we therefore used psortb (Gardy et al., 2005), signalp (Bendtsen et al., 2004) and secretomep (Bendtsen et al., 2005) to guide our efforts to assign a subcellular location for each protein. All 107 proteins identified in this study were analysed and assigned a putative or a predicted cellular localization as shown in the workflow depicted in Fig. 2. Within the subset of proteins predicted to be secreted, 23 were identified as possessing an N-terminal signal peptide (Table 2).